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Epictia resetari WALLACH, 2016

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Epictinae, Epictini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymEpictia resetari WALLACH 2016: 271
Stenostoma phaenops — FERRARI-PÉREZ, 1886: 183
Stenostoma phaenops — SMITH & SMITH, 1976: S-B-191 (part).
Glauconia albifrons — BOULENGER, 1893: 63 (part)
Glauconia albifrons — TAYLOR, 1939: 1, pl. 1, figs. 11–12 (part)
Glauconia albifrons — SMITH & SMITH, 1976: S-B-97, S-B-127–128, S-F-47.
Leptotyphlops phenops — KLAUBER, 1940: 151 (part)
Leptotyphlops phenops — SMITH & SMITH, 1976: S-F-47
Leptotyphlops phenops — RAMÍREZ-BAUTISTA & MORENO, 2006: 96 (part).
Leptotyphlops phenops phenops — SMITH, 1943: 444–445 (part)
Leptotyphlops phenops phenops — SMITH and Taylor, 1945: 24 (part)
Leptotyphlops phenops phenops — SMITH et al., 1952: 257
Leptotyphlops phenops phenops — SMITH & SMITH: 1976: S-B-130ff (part)
Leptotyphlops phenops phenops — GUZMÁN-GUZMÁN, 1994: 35.
Leptotyphlops goudotii phenops — PETERS et al., 1970 and 1986: 170 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii phenops — HAHN, 1980: 16 (part).
Leptotyphlops goudotii — GREENE 1973: 150, 1994: 39, 151
Leptotyphlops goudotii — SMITH & SMITH, 1976: S-B-129, S-F-47 (part); Leptotyphlops goudotii — HEDGES, 1996: 111, 115 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — CAMPELL, 1998: 186–187 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — GARCÍA et al., 1998: 45
Leptotyphlops goudotii — KLEY, 2001: 90
Leptotyphlops goudotii — KÖHLER, 2001b: 12, fig. 11B (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — KÖHLER 2008: 183–184, map (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — ADALSTEINSSON, 2008: 6ff, figs. 3.2, 3.5 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — CONABIO, 2009: 17 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — JOHNSON et al., 2010: 368 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — PAMPA-RAMÍREZ, 2010: 9ff, figs. 9–11, 14
Leptotyphlops goudotii — PAMPA-RAMÍREZ & GOYENECHEA 2010: 366
Leptotyphlops goudotii — WILSON and MATA-SILVA, 2014: 51.
Stenostoma phenops — SMITH & SMITH, 1976: S-F-44.
Leptotyphlops goudoti — SMITH & SMITH, 1976: S-B-129, S-G-4 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudoti — SMITH & SMITH 1993: 591, 709
Leptotyphlops goudoti — HAHN 1979: 230.2–3 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudoti — FLORES-VILLELA et al., 1987: x
Leptotyphlops goudoti — FLORES-VILLELA, 1993: 35 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudoti — RAMÍREZ-BAUTISTA & MONTES DE OCA 1997: 532
Leptotyphlops goudoti — VOGT et al., 1997: 517, 532
Leptotyphlops goudoti — MORENO-CASASOLA, 2003: 13.
Leptotyphlops goudoti phenops — SMITH & SMITH: 1976: S-B-130ff (part)
Leptotyphlops goudoti phenops — PÉREZ-HIGARAEDA, 1980: 23
Leptotyphlops goudoti phenops — PÉREZ-HIGARAEDA 1986: 132
Leptotyphlops goudoti phenops — PÉREZ-HIGARAEDA et al. 1987: 15
Leptotyphlops goudoti phenops — PÉREZ-HIGARAEDA & SMITH 1991: fig. 1 (col. photo)
Leptotyphlops goudoti phenops — VILLAFUERTE & FLORES-VILLELA 1992: 53
Leptotyphlops goudoti phenops — FOX-QUESEDA, 2006: 263.
Leptotyphlops goudotti phenops (sic) — SMITH, 1989: 51
Leptotyphlops goudoti phenops — PÉREZ-HIGARAEDA & SMITH 1991: 28, pl. 1
Leptotyphlops goudoti phenops — VILLAFUERTE, 1991: 153, 171
Leptotyphlops goudoti phenops — WILSON et al., 2013: 44 (part).
Leptotyphlops goudotii phenops (sic) — PETERS et al. 1970: 321–322, fig. 3
Leptotyphlops goudotii phenops (sic) — BRANCH, 1986: 293
Leptotyphlops goudotii phenops (sic) — PÉREZ-HIGARAEDA et al., 2007: 43ff
Epictia goudotii — ADALSTEINSSON et al., 2009: 7ff (part);
Epictia goudotii — HERNÁNDEZ-SALINAS et al., 2010: 516
Epictia goudotii — WILSON et al., 2013: 44 (part)
Epictia goudotii — DALDERÓN-ALVAREZ, 2014: 44
Epictia phenops — WALLACH et al., 2014: 278 (part)
Epictia phenops — MACCRANIE & HEDGES 2016: 4, 7, fig. 2 (part)
Epictia phenops — TERÁN-JUÁREZ et al., 2016: 59, 74, 90. 
DistributionMexico (S Tamaulipas, NE Hidalgo, Veracruz), elevation 0–900 m

Type locality: Paso de Ovejas, Veracruz, Mexico, 19°17'00"N, 96°26'26"W, elevation 55 m.  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: FMNH 178600 (field no. EHT 2194), a 116 mm (LOA) specimen collected by Edward H. Taylor on 17 July 1932.
Paratypes (7): MEXICO: VERACRUZ: 15.5 km SE Alvarado, collected by John R. Meyer on 17 August 1968, LACM 51798 (field no. JRM 3707); Cotaxtla, Cotaxtla Experimental Station, collected by David H. Janzen on 29 July 1962, LACM 28170; Finca Texquitipan, 6.4 km S Chote, collected by L. R. Cuesta on 30 May 1975, MVZ 128998; Río Blanco, 20 km WNW Piedras Negras, collected by unknown collector on 15 May 1946, KU 23252 (field no. WWD 5388); 33.0 km SE Veracruz, collected by A. R. Hardy on 19 August 1963, LACM 105291 (field no. AR 417; formerly LBSC 1311); and Laguna Catemaco, collected by Douglas C. Robinson on 16 July 1961, UMMZ 122826A–B (field no. EF 3442–43). 
CommentSynonymy: after Wallach 2016: 271. See this paper also for references. Epictia resetari represents a new species revealed by the molecular phylogeny of McCranie and Hedges (2016), referred to as E. phenops-3 (voucher specimen unknown) and E. phenops-4 (based on mitochondrial genes from UTA 52658 from “near La Victoria, Catemaco, Veracruz”) in their fig. 2.

Similar species: E. vindumi, but the populations of the two species are separated by 1,000 km and therefore recognizable under the concept of allopatric speciation.

Diagnosis: (1) scale row formula = 14-14-14; (2) midtail scale rows = 10; (3) total length = 79–142 (x– = 122.7) mm; (4) total midodrsals = 238–258 (x– = 246.2); (5) subcaudals = 15–20 (x– = 17.7); (6) relative body propor- tion = 40–60 (x– = 54.1); (7) relative tail length = 4.9%–6.5% (x– = 6.0%); (8) relative tail width = 3.2–4.2 (x– = 3.6); (9) relative rostral width = 0.27–0.41 (x– = 0.35); (10) relative eye size = 0.45–0.47 (x– = 0.46); (10) rostral sagittate with an oval or truncated apex, extending to mid-eye level; (11) supralabials 2, moderate anterior supralabial reach- ing mid-eye level; (12) frontal present, hexagonal, as broad as deep; (13) supraoculars large, twice as broad as deep, posterior borders parallel to posterior supranasal borders; (14) widest anteriormost vertebral scale 3rd; (15) parietals and occipitals subequal, oriented transversely; (16) infralabials 4; (17) cloacal shield semilunate in shape; (18) head brown, with a small to moderate yellow spot covering most of or the entire rostral; (19) dorsum with 7 dark brown stripes consisting of diamond-shaped spots bordered by 8 moderate zigzag yellow stripes (= 7 dark stripes); (20) venter uniform brown with scales outlined in yellow; (21) midbody stripe formula (3 + 2/2 + 0) and middorsal pattern (3D + 4L); (22) tail with a pale terminal spot covering the 1–2 (x– = 1.3) dorsocaudals and 51⁄2–9 (x– = 7.0) subcaudals (ventral/dorsal ratio 5.6); and (23) apical spine a stout compressed spike.

Habitat: This species has been found in bromeliads in open savanna (Smith, 1989), but mainly occurs in tropical evergreen and semi-deciduous forest (Vogt et al., 1997).

Comparisons: see Wallach 2016: 276 for detailed comparisons. 
EtymologyThis species is dedicated to Alan Resetar, Acting Divisional Manager and McCarter Collections Manager, Amphibian and Reptile Collection, Gantz Family Collections Center, Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH), and commemorates his 36 years of service to the museum. Alan has supported my research and made the FMNH collections available to me since 1982. His collection and departmental management, research, and hospitality to visiting researchers are most admirable and truly appreciated. 
References
  • Wallach, Van. 2016. Morphological review and taxonomic status of the Epictia phenops species group of Mesoamerica, with description of six new species and discussion of South American Epictia albifrons, E. goudotii, and E. tenella (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae: Epictinae Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 216-374 - get paper here
 
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