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Epictia schneideri WALLACH, 2016

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Epictinae, Epictini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymEpictia schneideri WALLACH 2016: 279
Leptotyphlops albifrons — AMARAL 1930b: 138 (part)
Leptotyphlops bakewelli — SMITH & TAYLOR 1945: 24 (part)
Leptotyphlops bakewelli — SMITH & SMITH 1976: S-B-128 ff (part)
Leptotyphlops bakewelli — SMITH & SMITH 1993: 590 (part)
Leptotyphlops phenops bakewelli — SMITH & TAYLOR 1945: 24, 1950: 328 (part); Leptotyphlops phenops bakewelli — DAVIS & DIXON 1959: 81
Leptotyphlops phenops bakewelli — HOLMAN 1964: 49
Leptotyphlops phenops bakewelli — SMITH & SMITH 1976: S-B-130ff (part)
Leptotyphlops phenops bakewelli — SMITH & SMITH 1976: S-B-129ff (part)
Leptotyphlops phenops bakewelli — PETERS et al. 1970
Leptotyphlops phenops bakewelli — PETERS et al. 1986: 169 (part)
Leptotyphlops phenops bakewelli — LINER, 1994: 90, 2007: 54 (part)
Leptotyphlops phenops bakewelli — WALLACH, 1998a: 490 (part)
Leptotyphlops phenops bakewelli — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008: 122 (part)
Leptotyphlops phenops phenops — SMITH & SMITH 1976: S-B-130 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudoti — SMITH & SMITH 1976: S-B-129ff
Leptotyphlops goudoti — SMITH & SMITH 1993: 591ff (part)
Leptotyphlops goudoti — HAHN 1979: 230.2–3 (part);
Leptotyphlops goudoti — FLORES-VILLELA 1993: 35 (part).
Leptotyphlops goudoti bakewelli — SMITH & SMITH, 1976: S-B-128ff
Leptotyphlops goudoti bakewelli — SMITH & SMITH 1993: 590ff (part)
Leptotyphlops goudoti bakewelli — SALDAÑA DE LA RIVA 1987: 39ff (part)
Leptotyphlops goudoti bakewelli — PÉREZ-RAMOS et al., 2000: 32 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudoti bakewelli — TPTON 2005: 24 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudoti bakewelli — VARIN 2008: 122 (part).
Leptotyphlops goudotii — SMITH & SMITH 1976: S-B-129ff (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — FRANK & RAMUS 1995: 250 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — HEDGES 1996: 111, 115 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — MCDIARMID et al., 1999: 31 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — KÖHLER 2001a: 123 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — KÖHLER 2001b: 12, fig. 11B (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — KÖHLER 2008: 183–184, map (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — CASAS-ANDREU et al., 2004: 389 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — ADALSTAINSSON 2008: 6ff, figs. 3.2, 3.5 (part); Leptotyphlops goudotii — ANONYMOUS 2009: 69 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — CONABIO, 2009: 17 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — WILSON & JOHNSON 2010: 137, 233 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — WILSON & TOWNSEND 2010: 811 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii — WILSON et al., 2013: 44 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii phenops — HAHN 1980: 15 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotti bakewelli (sic) — PÉREZ-HIGARAEDA & SMITH 1991: 29 (part).
Leptotyphlops gaudoti (sic) — CASAS-ANDREU et al. 1996: 34 (part)
Epictia goudotii — ADALSTAINSSON et al. 2009: 7ff, figs. 3A, 12 (part)
Epictia goudoti — CONABIO, 2012: 52 (part)
Epictia bakewelli — WALLACH et al., 2014: 276 (part)
Epictia goudoti — CONABIO 2012: 52 (part)
Epictia bakewelli — MATA-SILVA et al., 2015: 23, 41 (part)
Epictia goudoti — CONABIO 2012: 52 (part)
Epictia bakewelli — MCCRANIE & HEDGES 2016: 4ff, figs. 2, 4 (part)
Epictia bakewelli — WILSON & JOHNSON 2016: 38 (part) 
DistributionMexico (Sierra Madre del Sur: Guerrero, including Isla Ixtapa, Oaxaca), elevation 825–1,675 m.

Type locality: 1.7 km SW Colotlipa, Guerrero, Mexico, 17°23'46"N, 99°10'48"W, elevation 825 m.  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: TCWC 9450 (field no. RWA 543), a 141 mm (LOA) specimen collected by Roy W. Axtell on 23 June 1953.
Paratypes (11): MEXICO: GUERRERO: Acahuizotla, 850 m, collected by Ralph W. Axtell on 14 June 1952, TCWC 7502 (field no. RWA 168); 1.7 km W Acahuizotla, collected by John E. Winbery on 11 June 1952, TCWC 7411 (field no. JEW 543); 1.7 km SW Colotlipa, 825 m, collected by D. K. Richards on 2 July 1953, TCWC 9451 (field no. DKR 112); 1.7 km SW Colotlipa, 825 m, collected by D. W. Morris on 29 June 1953, TCWC 9451 (field no. DWM 114); Chilpancingo, 1,290 m, collected by Wilmot W. Brown, Jr., on 15 May 1937, MCZ R-43278. OAXACA: Distrito Putla, 11.7 km S Putla, 760 m, UTEP 5981; Distrito Miahuatlán, San José Lachiguiri, 1,675 m, collected by Thomas B. MacDougall on 3 November 1971, UCM 52580 (field no. TBM 97). No specific lo- cality, collected by Edward H. Taylor, FMNH 99676 (field no. EHT 15935/1015), FMNH 99677 (field no. EHT 15937/1016), FMNH 99678 (field no. EHT 15934/1018), and FMNH 99679 (field no. EHT 15938/1148). 
CommentSynonymy: after Wallach 2016: 279. See this paper also for references. Epictia schneideri presumably represents the new species revealed by the molecular phylogeny of McCranie and Hedges (2016), referred to as E. bakewelli-4 (voucher specimen unknown) in their fig. 2, or an entirely separate discovery if that specimen did not originate from the Sierra Madre del Sur. The two other appar- ently undescribed species, represented as bakewelli-1 (based on mitochondrial genes from UTA 57498 from “between Puerto Escondido and Puerto Angel”) and bakewelli-3 (based on UTA 53657 from “between Mazunte and Piontepanoc”) in fig. 2, originate from coastal localities in Oaxaca.

Diagnosis: (1) scale row formula = 14-14-14; (2) midtail scale rows = 10; (3) total length = 83–181 (x– = 123.6) mm; (4) total midodrsals = 243–265 (x– = 246.8); (5) subcaudals = 13–22 (x– = 18.2); (6) relative body propor- tion = 42–64 (x– = 53.3); (7) relative tail length = 4.5%–8.7% (x– = 6.6%); (8) relative tail width = 3.3–5.3 (x– = 4.2); (9) relative rostral width = 0.23–0.47 (x– = 0.37); (10) relative eye size = 0.44–0.45 (x– = 0.45); (10) rostral waisted with a posterior constriction, apex truncated, extending beyond eye level; (11) supralabials 2, moderate anterior supralabial reaching mid-eye level but not in contact with supraocular; (12) frontal fused with rostral; (13) supra- oculars large and blocky, twice as broad as deep, with posterior borders parallel to those of supranasals; (14) widest anteriormost vertebral scale 2nd; (15) parietals and occipitals subequal, oriented transversely; (16) infralabials 4; (17) cloacal shield semilunate in shape; (18) head brown with a pale spot on upper rostral; (19) dorsum with 3 brown middorsal linear stripes of rectangular-shaped spots bordered by moderate straight yellow lines and a solid brown midlateral stripe covering 2 scales (= 5 dark stripes); (20) venter uniform pale yellow with diffuse brown vermiculations on each scale; (21) midbody stripe formula (3 + 1/1 + 0), and middorsal pattern (3D + 4L); (22) tail with a pale terminal spot covering the 0.5–2 (x– = 1.8) dorsocaudals and 2–7 (x– = 5.2) subcaudals (ventral/dorsal ratio 1.8); and (23) apical spine a small spike.

Habitat: pine-oak, deciduous, and semi-evergreen forests

Comparisons: see Wallach 2016: 284 for detailed comparisons. 
Etymology“This species is named in honor of Greg Schneider, Collections Manager, Division of Reptiles and Amphibians, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (UMMZ), and commemorates his 30 years of service to the museum. Greg facilitated my work in Ann Arbor in 1986, and has provided loans, data, and photos on scole- cophidians in the UMMZ collections since that time.” (Wallach 2016: 280) 
References
  • Wallach, Van. 2016. Morphological review and taxonomic status of the Epictia phenops species group of Mesoamerica, with description of six new species and discussion of South American Epictia albifrons, E. goudotii, and E. tenella (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae: Epictinae Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 216-374 - get paper here
 
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