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Erythrolamprus juliae (COPE, 1879)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesErythrolamprus juliae juliae (COPE 1879)
Erythrolamprus juliae copeae (PARKER 1936) 
Common NamesE: Leeward Groundsnake, Julia's Ground Snake 
SynonymAporophis juliae COPE 1879: 274
Acrophis [sic] juliae COPE 1879 (fide GÜNTHER 1888)
Dromicus juliae — GARMAN 1887: 281
Liophis juliae — GÜNTHER 1888: 365
Leimadophis mariae BARBOUR 1914 (fide DIXON 1981)
Liophis juliae — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 623
Liophis juliae — POWELL et al. 1996: 88
Erythrolamprus juliae — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Liophis juliae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 382

Erythrolamprus juliae copeae (PARKER 1936)
Dromicus juliae copeae PARKER 1936
Liophis juliae copeae — QUESTEL 2011 
DistributionLesser Antilles: Dominica, Guadeloupe, Marie-Galante, Basse-Terre, Grande-Terre

juliae: Dominica. Type locality: Dominica.

copeae: Guadeloupe.

mariae: Marie-Galante.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 10152.
Synypes: BMNH 1946.1.5.86-.87 [copeae]
Synypes: MCZ 6138 [mariae] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Maximum SVL 458 mm; dorsal scale rows at midbody 17; ventrals 154-167; subcaudals 74-89; supralabials 8/8; infralabials 10/10; preoculars 1/1; postoculars 2/2; temporals 1+2/1+2; anal divided. Color pattern (as preserved) variable: from almost uniform brown or black with lighter flecking to brown or black scales with yellow or white centers ("salt-and-pepper" pattern) Uuveniles frequently brown with lighter flecking); head from black with obscure whitish spots to 60% black with bright yellow or white areas on frontal and prefrontal areas; parietals, nuchals, labials, chin, and throat white or yellow; venter from immaculate white to 65% black or black-checkered; subcaudals usually white, occasionally with dark spots scattered throughout (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 623). 
CommentFor illustrations see Howes, 1970; Dixon, 1981. 
EtymologyNamed after E.D. Cope’s daugther, Cope Collins (1866–1959). 
  • Barbour, Thomas 1914. A Contribution to the Zoögeography of the West Indies, with Especial Reference to Amphibians and Reptiles. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy 44 (2): 205-359 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1879. Eleventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 18: 261-277. - get paper here
  • Dixon, J.R. 1981. The neotropical colubrid snake genus Liophis: the eastern Caribbean complex. Copeia 1981 (2): 296-304 - get paper here
  • Dixon, James R. 1989. A key and checklist to the neotropical snake genus Liophis with country lists and maps. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (79): 1-40 - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286. - get paper here
  • Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1888. Notes on reptiles and frogs from Dominica, West Indies. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 2: 362-366 - get paper here
  • Henderson R W & Bourgeois, R.W. 1993. Notes on the Diets of West Indian Liophis (Serpentes: Colubridae). Carib. J. Sci. 29 (3-4): 253-254
  • Howes, P.G. 1970. Photographer in the rain-forests. P.G. Howes and Assoc., Noroton, Conn. xx+218pp.
  • Jowers, Michael J.; Stephane Caut, Juan Luis Garcia-Mudarra, Samer Alasaad, and Ivan Ineich 2013. Molecular Phylogenetics of the Possibly Extinct Martinique Ground Snake. Herpetologica 69 (2): 227-236. - get paper here
  • Malhotra, A. & Thorpe, R.S. 1999. Reptiles & Amphibians of the Eastern Caribbean. MacMillan, London & Oxford
  • Malhotra, Anita; Thorpe, Roger S.; Hypolite, Eric; James, Arlington. 2007. A report on the status of the herpetofauna of the Commonwealth of Dominica, West Indies. Applied Herpetology 4 (2):177-194 - get paper here
  • Parker, H. W. 1936. Some extinct snakes of the West Indies. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 10(18): 227-233 - get paper here
  • Powell, R., R. W. Henderson, K. Adler, And H. A. Dundee. 1996. An annotated checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. In R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (eds.), Contributions to West Indian Herpetology: A Tribute to Albert Schwartz, p.51-93. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca (New York). Contributions to Herpetology, volume 12. [book review in Salamandra 36 (2): 136]
  • Questel K. 2011. Liophis juliae (Leeward Groundsnake). Conservation. Caribbean Herpetology 24: 1 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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