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Erythrolamprus macrosomus (AMARAL, 1936)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymLeimadophis reginae macrosoma AMARAL 1936: 238
Leimadophis reginae maculicauda HOGE 1954: 241
Leimadophis reginae macrosoma — HOGE 1959: 69
Leimadophis reginae macrosoma — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 149
Liophis reginae macrostoma — DIXON 1980: 24
Liophis reginae macrostoma [sic] — DIXON 1983
Liophis macrosomus reginae — CEI 1993
Liophis reginae macrosomus — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 23
Liophis reginae macrosomus — SCROCCHI et al. 2006: 101
Liophis reginae macrosoma — LIMA-SILVEIRA et al. 2010
Erythrolamprus reginae macrosomus — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012: 21
Liophis reginae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 393
Erythrolamprus macrosomus — ASCENSO et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Cerrado in Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Paraná), Argentina (Entre Ríos), Paraguay (Chaco)

Type locality: Cana Brava, Minaçu, Goiás, Brazil.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: lost, formerly IBSP 9130–33, lost at the fire accident in the Instituto Butantan.
Holotype: lost, formerly IBSP 9606, lost at the fire accident on the Instituto Butantan [maculicauda] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Erythrolamprus macrosomus is distinguished from all congeners by unique combination of the following characters: (1) dorsal scale rows 17, reducing to 15 rows after midbody; (2) apical pit single; (3) ventrals 137–169 in females and 140–158 in males; (4) subcaudals 53–91 in females and 67–87 in males; (5) dorsum of head olive green, extending to anterior third of the body, gradually changing to grayish-brown at midbody; (6) upper edges of supralabials with the same color of dorsum of head; (7) belly creamish-white with black spots with squared or rhomboid shape arranged in a checkered pattern; (8) lateral black spots absent; (9) ventral surface of tail creamish-white with dots or spots near the cloacal shield; (10) intrasulcal region of hemipenial body with spinules homogeneously distributed; (11) medial region of hemipenial body at asulcate face ornamented with two rows of elongated spines; (12) sulcus spermaticus bifurcates at the half length of hemipenial body; and (13) moderate body size (SVL 136–698 mm).

Comparisons. Erythrolamprus macrosomus shares a lateral stripe along the posterior region of the body and the tail, and usually a cream belly with black spots of square or rhomboid shape with E. reginae, E. dorsocorallinus, E. zweifeli and, eventually E. oligolepis regarding ventral marks. Erythrolamprus macrosomus differs from E. oligolepis by having 17 dorsal scale rows at midbody and conspicuous ventral rectangular dark spots (vs. 15 dorsal scales rows at midbody and belly usually without spots); from E. reginae by having tail cream with black spots (vs. tail cream without spots); from E. zweifeli and E. dorsocorallinus by having dorsal ground color dark brown (vs. dorsal scales with apical half black and the basal portion yellowish, reddish or bluish-cream); from E. cobella, E. taeniogaster and E. breviceps by having belly cream with spots occupying an area lower than a ventral scale (vs. cream belly scattered with complete black bands, usually occupying two ventral scales). Additionally, E. macrosomus differs from E. e. epinephelus and E. e. albiventris by having a ventral surface with squared black spots (vs. belly usually without spots); from E. e. juvenalis, E. e. pseudocobella, E. e. opisthotaenius, E. e. bimaculatus, E. e. lamonae, and E. e. fraseri by having dorsal ground color of head regularly pigmented of olive green, extending to anterior third of the body, without bands or blotches (vs. dorsum of the head cream or olive green with bands on anterior portion of body, and a black spot and a thick postorbital stripe on each side of head); from from E. taeniurus by having dorsal ground color uniformly olive green and 141–169 ventrals (vs. dorsum with black bands and 152–181 ventrals). Regarding the sympatric taxa, E. macrosomus differs from E. miliaris by having dorsal ground color uniformly olive green with a dorsal-lateral black stripe (vs. dorsum of head, body and tail yellowish-cream with the distal half of the scales colored black and dorsal-lateral stripe absent); from E. typhlus and E. poecilogyrus by having 17 dorsal scale rows in the midbody (vs. 19 dorsal scale rows in the midbody). 
CommentSynonymy: WALLACH et al. 2014 list Leimadophis reginae macrosoma and Natrix semilineata as synonyms of Liophis reginae. See also E. reginae and E. zweifeli.

Habitat: semidecidual forests 
Etymology 
References
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