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Erythrolamprus melanotus (SHAW, 1802)

IUCN Red List - Erythrolamprus melanotus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesErythrolamprus melanotus lamari (DIXON & MICHAUD 1992)
Erythrolamprus melanotus nesos (DIXON & MICHAUD 1992)
Erythrolamprus melanotus melanotus (SHAW 1802) 
Common NamesE: Dark Groundsnake, Shaw's Dark Ground Snake 
SynonymColuber Melanotus SHAW 1802: 534
Coluber (Natrix) raninus MERREM 1820: 106
Coluber vittatus HALLOWELL 1845: 242
Liophis melanonotus — COPE 1860 (replacement name for melanotus SHAW)
Dromicus melanotus — GARMAN 1887: 282
Lemiadophis melanotus — BARBOUR 1916 (in error)
Aporophis crucifer AHL 1925: 271
Leimadophis melanotus — AMARAL 1929: 166
Leimadophis melanotus — DUNN 1944: 487
Leimadophis melanotus — ROZE 1964
Leimadophis melanotus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 144
Leimadophis melanotus — KRINTLER 1982
Liophis melanotus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 624
Liophis melanotus — DIXON & MICHAUD 1992
Liophis melanotus melanotus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Liophis melanotus — RUEDA-SOLANO & CASTELLANOS- BARLIZA 2010
Erythrolamprus melanotus — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Liophis melanotus — BLANCO-TORRES et al. 2013
Liophis melanotus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 383

Erythrolamprus melanotus lamari (DIXON & MICHAUD 1992)
Liophis melanotus lamari DIXON & MICHAUD 1992
Liophis melanotus lamari — ESQUEDA et al. 2007

Erythrolamprus melanotus nesos (DIXON & MICHAUD 1992)
Liophis melanotus nesos — BOOS 2001
Erythrolamprus melanotus nesos — AUGUSTE 2019 
DistributionColombia, Venezuela (Cojedes), Isla Margarita, Trinidad, Tobago, Grenada, Lesser Antilles

Type locality: Cape of Good Hope, Africa (in error)

lamari: Venezuela (Zulia)

nesos: Trinidad  
TypesHolotype: Unlocated.
Holotype: TCWC 61974 (Texas Cooperative Wildlife Collection 61974), an adult female, taken by Richard M. Robinson (about 1970) [lamari]
Holotype: USNM 166717, taken on 7 November 1967, by Eric Billings [nesos] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Maximum SVL 430 mm (Tobago); dorsal scale rows at midbody 17; ventrals 144-155; subcaudals 56-62; supralabials usually 8/8; infralabials usually 10/10; preoculars 1/1; postoculars 2/2; temporals 1+2/1+2. Dorsal ground color yellowish or salmon pink; vertebral region (5 or 6 scales wide) black, with yellow and black streak on each side; vertebral stripe narrows on neck and sometimes deteriorates into spots; top of head olive; black ocular stripe; supralabials yellow; venter salmon or yellow (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 6)24. 
CommentSynonymy modified after DIXON & MICHAUD 1992. Two dubious records of a fifth species, L. melanotus, occurring on Grenada are probably dismissible (Henderson, 1992).

Diet: microteiid lizards in the genus Bachia, frogs (Pristimantis urichi, Engystomops pustulosus), geckos (Gonatodes vittatus), fish (Murphy et al. 2019) 
  • Acuña-Vargas, J. C. 2016. Anfibios y Reptiles asociados a cinco coberturas de la tierra, municipio de Dibulla, La Guajira, Colombia. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n. s.), 32(2): 133-146 - get paper here
  • Ahl, E. 1925. Über zwei neue Schlangen des zoolog. Museums Berlin. Zool. Anz. 63: 271-272
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVIII. Lista remissiva dos ophidios da região neotropica. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 126-271 [1929] - get paper here
  • Auguste, Renoir J. 2019. Herpetofaunal checklist for six pilot protected areas in Trinidad and Tobago. Herpetology Notes 12: 577-585 - get paper here
  • Barbour, T. 1916. Amphibians and reptiles of Tobago. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 221-224 - get paper here
  • Blanco-Torres, Argelina; Lina Báez S., Edgar Patiño-Flores, Juan M. Renjifo-R. 2013. Herpetofauna from the middle valley of the Ranchería river, La Guajira, Colombia. Rev. Biodivers. Neotrop. 3 (2): 113-22
  • Boos, H.E.A. 2001. The snakes of Trinidad and Tobago. Texas A&M University Press, 270 pp.
  • Cope, E.D. 1860. Catalogue of the Colubridae in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes and descriptions of new species. Part II. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 241-266 - get paper here
  • Dixon J R. MICHAUD E J. 1992. Shaw's black-backed snake (Liophis melanotus) (Serpentes: Colubridae) of Northern South America. Journal of Herpetology 26 (3): 250-259. - get paper here
  • Dixon, James R. 1989. A key and checklist to the neotropical snake genus Liophis with country lists and maps. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (79): 1-40 - get paper here
  • Dunn, E.R. 1944. A revision of the Colombian snakes of the genera Leimadophis, Lygophis, Liophis, Rhadinaea, and Pliocercus, with a note on Colombian Coniophanes. Caldasia 2 (10): 479-495 - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286. - get paper here
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x - get paper here
  • Guerrero, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Acosta, Alexis 2014. Primer reporte de infestación de la serpiente reinita (Liophis melanotus melanotus Shaw, 1802) (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) por el ácaro (Amblyomma dissimile, Koch, 1844) (Acarina:Ixodidae) en Venezuela. Cuad. Herpetol. 28: - get paper here
  • Hallowell, E. 1845. Descriptions of reptiles from South America, supposed to be new. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad., 2: 241-247 - get paper here
  • Henderson R W & Bourgeois, R.W. 1993. Notes on the Diets of West Indian Liophis (Serpentes: Colubridae). Carib. J. Sci. 29 (3-4): 253-254
  • Henderson, R. W. 1992. Consequences of predator introductions and habitat destruction on amphibians and reptiles in the post-Columbus West Indies. Carib. J. Sci. 28: 1-10.
  • Kornacker, Paul M.;Dederichs, Ursula 1997. Herpetologische Eindrücke einer Venezuelareise. Elaphe 5 (3): 87-96
  • Krintler, K. 1982. Auf den Spuren von Robert Mertens auf Tobago. Herpetofauna 4 (16): 10-14 - get paper here
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • Markezich, A.L. 2002. New distribution records of reptiles from Western Venezuela. Herpetological Review 33 (1): 69-74 - get paper here
  • Merrem, B. 1820. Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien I (Tentamen Systematis Amphibiorum). J. C. Kriegeri, Marburg, 191 pp. - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1972. Herpetofauna tobagana. Stuttgarter Beitr. zur Naturkunde nr. 252 22 pp. - get paper here
  • Murphy JC, Braswell AL, Charles SP, Auguste RJ, Rivas GA, Borzée A, Lehtinen RM, Jowers MJ 2019. A new species of Erythrolamprus from the oceanic island of Tobago (Squamata, Dipsadidae). ZooKeys 817: 131-157 - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela. Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Páez, V.P. et al. 2002. Guía de campo de algunas especies de anfibios y reptiles de Antioquia. Universidad de Antioquia, - get paper here
  • Pedroza-Banda, Raúl; Jhon Jairo Ospina-Sarria, Teddy Angarita-Sierra, Marvin Anganoy-Criollo, John D. Lynch 2014. Estado de la fauna de anfibios y reptiles del Casanare Ciencias naturales Estado del conocimiento de la fauna de anfibios y reptiles del departamento de Casanare, Colombia. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. 38 (146): 17-34 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Restrepo A, Molina-Zuluaga C, Hurtado JP, Marín CM, Daza JM 2017. Amphibians and reptiles from two localities in the northern Andes of Colombia. Check List 13 (4): 203-237 - get paper here
  • Rivas Fuenmayor, G.; Ugueto, G.; Rivero, R. & Miralles, A. 2005. The Herpetofauna of Isla de Margarita, Venezuela: New Records and Comments. Carib. J. Sci. 41 (2): 346-351
  • Rivas Fuenmayor, Gilson and Cesar Luis Barrio Amorós 2005. New Amphibian and Reptile records from Cojedes State, Venezuela. Herpetological Review 36 (2):205-209. - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Roze, Janis A 1964. The snakes of the Leimadophis-Urotheca-Liophis complex from Parque Nacional Henri Pitter (Rancho Grande), Venezuela, with a description of a new genus and species. Senckenbergiana Biologica 45 (3/5): 533-542
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Señaris, J. Celsa; María Matilde Aristeguieta Padrón, Haidy Rojas Gil y Fernando J. M. Rojas-Runjaic 2018. Guía ilustrada de los anfibios y reptiles del valle de Caracas, Venezuela. Ediciones IVIC, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC). Caracas, Venezuela. 348 pp.
  • Shaw, G. 1802. General Zoology, or Systematic Natural History. Vol.3, part 2. G. Kearsley, Thomas Davison, London: 313-615 - get paper here
  • Test, Frederic H.;Sexton, Owen J.;Heatwole, Harold 1966. Reptiles of Rancho Grande and vicinity, Estado Aragua, Venezuela. Miscellaneous publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (128): 1-63 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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