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Erythrolamprus miliaris (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesErythrolamprus miliaris miliaris (LINNAEUS 1758)
Erythrolamprus miliaris amazonicus (DUNN 1922)
Erythrolamprus miliaris chrysostomus (COPE 1868)
Erythrolamprus miliaris merremi (WIED 1821)
Erythrolamprus miliaris orinus (GRIFFIN 1916) 
Common NamesMilitary Ground Snake 
SynonymLiophis miliaris miliaris (LINNAEUS 1758)
Coluber miliaris LINNAEUS 1758: 220
Ablabes purpurans DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 312
Liophis cobella var. collaris JAN 1863
Liophis cobella var. collaris — JAN 1866
Coronella orientalis GÜNTHER 1864: 236
Diadophis purpurans — JAN 1866
Rhadinaea chrysostoma COPE 1868: 104
Coronella poecilolaemus GÜNTHER 1872: 19
Liophis purpurans - GÜNTHER 1872
Rhadinae [sic] purpurans — PRADO 1942: 1
Liophis purpurans — SCHMIDT & WALKER 1943: 285
Liophis purpurans — DUNN 1944: 490
Liophis purpurans — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 179
Liophis miliaris — FREIBERG 1982
Liophis miliaris — STARACE 1998: 216
Liophis purpurans — CLAESSEN 2003
Erythrolamprus miliaris — FORLANI et al. 2010
Erythrolamprus miliaris — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Liophis miliaris — COLE et al. 2013
Liophis miliaris — WALLACH et al. 2014: 383
Liophis miliaris — BERNARDE et al. 2012

Erythrolamprus miliaris amazonicus (DUNN 1922)
Dromicus amazonicus DUNN 1922
Liophis miliaris amazonicus — DIXON 1983: 800
Liophis miliaris amazonicus — DO NASCIMENTO et al. 1987
Liophis miliaris amazonicus — AVILA & KAWASHITA-RIBEIRO 2011

Erythrolamprus miliaris chrysostomus (COPE 1868)
Rhadinaea chrysostoma COPE 1868
Coronella poecilolaemus GÜNTHER 1872
Liophis chrysostomus — DIXON & SOINI 1977
Liophis miliaris chrysostomus — DIXON 1983
Liophis miliaris chrysostomus — FROTA 2005

Erythrolamprus miliaris merremi (WIED 1821)
Coluber merremii WIED 1821
C.(oluber) dictyodes WIED 1824
Coluber bicolor REUSS 1834: 145
Coronella Merremi — SCHLEGEL 1837: 58
Liophis Merremi — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 708
Coronella australis GÜNTHER 1858
Opheomorphus meleagris var. semilineatus COPE 1860
Liophis Merremii — JAN 1866
? Liophis Merremii — BOULENGER 1886: 431
Liophis miliaris merremi — DIXON 1983: 800

Erythrolamprus miliaris orinus (GRIFFIN 1916)
Rhadinaea orina GRIFFIN 1916: 195
Rhadinaea merremii natricoides WERNER 1926: 247
Liophis miliaris orinus — DIXON 1983: 800
Liophis miliaris orinus — GUTSCHE et al. 2007 
DistributionBrazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro), Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, E Venezuela (Amazonas [HR 34:265], Bolívar), Argentina (Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Santa Fe, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Formosa, Misiones)

amazonicus: from Santarem southwest to Rio Itenez in Bolivia and to Mato Grosso in Brazil; terra typica: Santarem, Brazil.

chrysostomus: Brazil (Pará: HR 33: 68), Colombia

miliaris: French Guiana, Guiana, Surinam, E Venezuela, Brazil (Pará: HR 33: 228).

orinus: Argentina (Misiones), Paraguay

purpurans (invalid): Guiana, Surinam, French Guiana, S Colombia, Ecuador, Peru; Type locality: Mana, French Guiana

Type locality: “Indiis”; restricted to Santos, Sao Paulo (Brazil) fide GANS 1964 Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesTypes: BMNH 1946.1.5.75 (and possibly additional specimens). 
CommentSynonymy and subspecies: L. purpurans has been synonymized with L. miliaris by DIXON 1983. Synonymy partly that of PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 179. L. purpurans is not listed by GASC & RODRIGUES 1980. Liophis miliaris intermedius HENLE & EHRL 1991 has been synonymized with Liophis reginae. Liophis miliaris mossoroensis (HOGE & LIMA-VERDE 1973) is now considered as a valid species. A specimen of L. miliaris from the Amazonas State (Fuentes 2003) was identified as Liophis cf. zweifeli by RIVAS et al. 2012. Liophis miliaris semiaureus was elevated to full (evolutionary) species by GIRAUDO et al. 2006.

Venomous! 
References
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