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Erythrolamprus oligolepis (BOULENGER, 1905)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesPortuguese: Cobra-de-Capim, Jararaquinha, Parelheira 
SynonymLiophis oligolepis BOULENGER 1905: 455
Liophis reginae semilineata — DIXON 1983: 3 (part.).
Leimadophis oligolepis — CUNHA & NASCIMENTO 1993
Liophis oligolepis — FROTA et al. 2005
Erythrolamprus oligolepis — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012: 21
Erythrolamprus oligolepis — PEREIRA FAGUNDES DE FRANCA et al. 2013
Liophis oligolepis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 391
Erythrolamprus reginae semilineata — SANTOS-COSTA et al. 2015
Erythrolamprus oligolepis — NATERA-MUMAW et al. 2015: 173
Erythrolamprus oligolepis — ASCENSO et al. 2019
Erythrolampus oligolepis — RABOSKY et al. 2019 (in error)
Erythrolamprus oligolepis — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Acre, Amazonas, Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso and Maranhão), Venezuela, Peru (Iquitos, Estirón and Loreto)

Type locality: “Igapé-Assu, Pará, Brazil.” Emended to Igarapé-Açu, Pará, Brazil fide Cunha & Nascimento (1993: 73).  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.4.66, juvenile male 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Erythrolamprus oligolepis can be distinguished from all congeners by unique combination of the following characters: (1) dorsal scales rows 15, without reduction at the midbody; (2) apical pit single; (3) ventrals 134–166 in females and 142–160 in males; (4) subcaudals 55–67 in females and 53–64 in males; (5) dorsal coloration of the head olive green, extending to anterior third of the body, gradually changing to grayish-brown at midbody; (6) upper edges of supralabials with distinctive dark postorbital stripe; (7) belly creamish-white usually without black spots, except for the specimens of the west margin of the Amazon River, which present a slight pigmentation; (8) lateral black spots extending from anterior third of the body, between 2–3th dorsal scale rows, to form a lateral stripe, which extends to the end of the tail; (9) subcaudals without dots or spots; (10) intrasulcal region of hemipenial body with spines slightly elongated, arranged in a row extending from distal region of lobes to the level of bifurcation of sulcus spermaticus; (11) medial region of asulcate face of hemipenial body ornamented with spinules homegeneously distributed; (12) sulcus spermaticus bifurcates at half length of the hemipenial body; and (13) small body size (SVL 114–392 mm) [from ASCENSO et al. 2019].

Comparisons. Erythrolamprus oligolepis shares a lateral stripe along the posterior region of the body and the tail, and usually a cream belly with black spots of square or rhomboid shape with E. reginae, E. macrosomus, E. dorsocorallinus, and E. zweifeli. Erythrolamprus oligolepis differs from reginae and E. macrosomus by having 15 dorsal scale rows at midbody and belly usually without spots (vs. 17 dorsal scales rows at midbody and ventral rectangular dark spots); differs from E. zweifeli and E. dorsocorallinus by having dorsal ground color regularly pigmented of dark brown (vs. dorsal scales with apical half black and the basal portion yellowish-cream, reddish or bluish-cream). Additionally, E. oligolepis differ from all subspecies of E. epinephelus by having dorsal ground color of head regularly pigmented of olive green, extending from anterior third of the body, without bands or blotches, 15 dorsal scale rows at midbody, and belly usually without spots (vs. dorsum of the head cream or olive green, with bands on anterior portion of body and with a black spot and a thick postorbital stripe on each side of head, 17 dorsal scales rows at midbody, and belly with dark rectangular spots); differs from E. pyburni by having the anterior third of the body without spots, subcaudals 55–67 in females, and 53–64 in males, fourth and fifth supralabials in contact with the eye, and nine infralabial scales (vs. anterior third of the body with transversal spots, 37–40 subcaudals, third and fourth supralabials in contact with the eye, and eight infralabial scales) [from ASCENSO et al. 2019]. 
CommentSynonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. Dixon 1983 placed Erythrolamprus oligolepis in the synonymy of Liophis reginae semilineata but CUNHA & NASCIMENTO 1993 revalidated it as Leimadophis oligolepis.

Habitat: forest 
  • ASCENSO, ALEXANDRE C.; JOÃO C. L. COSTA, ANA L. C. PRUDENTE 2019. Taxonomic revision of the Erythrolamprus reginae species group, with description of a new species from Guiana Shield (Serpentes: Xenodontinae). Zootaxa 4586 (1): 065–097 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1905. Descriptions of new snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (7) 15 (89): 453-456 - get paper here
  • Costa, Henrique Caldeira & Renato Silveira Bérnils 2015. Répteis brasileiros: lista de espécies 2015. Herpetologia Brasileira 4 (3): 75-93
  • Cunha, O. R. da;Nascimento, F. P. do 1993. Ofidios da Amazonia. as cobras da regiao leste do Pará. Bol. Mus. Para.E. Goeldi 9: 1-191 - get paper here
  • Entiauspe-Neto, Omar M.; Arthur D. Abegg, Claudia Koch, Leroy P. Nuñez, Weverton S. Azevedo, Leandro J. C. L. Moraes, Arthur Tiutenko, Tatiane S. Bialves & Daniel Loebmann 2021. A new species of Erythrolamprus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontini) from the savannas of northern South America. Salamandra 57 (2): 196–218 - get paper here
  • Ferreira, A. S. 2021. Rapid survey of the herpetofauna of Estação Ecológica Alto Maués: a rarely accessed area in the Brazilian Amazonia. Biota Amazônia 11(1): 22-28 - get paper here
  • França, D.P.F.; M.A. Freitas; P.S. Bernarde; V.M. Uhlig. 2013. Erythrolamprus oligolepis (Boulenger, 1905) (Serpentes: Dipsadidae): First record for the state of Acre, Brazil. Check List 9 (3): 668-669 - get paper here
  • Frota, J.G. da; Pedroso dos Santos-Jr, Alfredo; Menezes-Chalkidis, H. de & Guimarães Guedes, A. 2005. AS SERPENTES DA REGIÃO DO BAIXO RIO AMAZONAS, OESTE DO ESTADO DO PARÁ, BRASIL (SQUAMATA). Biociências 13 (2): 211-220 - get paper here
  • GONCALVES PEREIRA, A. J. C., AND R. BERNHARD 2020. Geographic Distribution: Erythrolamprus oligolepis. Brazil: Amazonas: Municipality of Tefé. Herpetological Review 51: 274.
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela. Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Rabosky, Daniel L.; Rudolf von May, Michael C. Grundler and Alison R. Davis Rabosky 2019. The Western Amazonian Richness Gradient for Squamate Reptiles: Are There Really Fewer Snakes and Lizards in Southwestern Amazonian Lowlands? Diversity 11: 199; doi:10.3390/d11100199 - get paper here
  • Santos-Costa, Maria Cristina dos; Gleomar Fabiano Maschio, Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente 2015. Natural history of snakes from Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, eastern Amazonia, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 8: 69-98 - get paper here
  • Vaz-Silva, W.; RM Oliveira, AFN Gonzaga, KC Pinto, FC Poli, TM Bilce, M Penhacek, L Wronski, JX Martins, TG Junqueira, LCC, Cesca VY, Guimarães RD. Pinheiro 2015. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil Braz. J. Biol., 75 (3) (suppl.): S205-S218 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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