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Erythrolamprus reginae (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesErythrolamprus reginae semilineatus (WAGLER 1824)
Erythrolamprus reginae reginae (LINNAEUS 1758)
Erythrolamprus reginae macrosoma (AMARAL 1936) 
Common NamesRoyal Ground Snake 
SynonymColuber Reginae LINNAEUS 1758: 219
Coluber graphicus SHAW 1802: 474
Coronella reginae — SCHLEGEL 1837: 61
Liophis reginae — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 704
Liophis reginae var. quadrilineata JAN 1863: 295
Liophis reginae var. quadrilineata — JAN 1866
Liophis reginae var. ornata JAN 1863: 295
Leimadophis reginae — BEEBE 1946: 29
Leimadophis reginae — PETERS 1960
Leimadophis reginae — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 148
Leimadophis reginae — DUELLMAN 1978: 246
Leimadophis reginae — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Liophis poecilogyrus intermedius — VANZOLINI 1986
Liophis miliaris intermedius HENLE & EHRL 1991 (fide DIXON & TIPTON 2003
Leimadophis reginae — SHINE 1994
Liophis reginae — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 23
Liophis reginae — BERNILS et al. 2007
Erythrolamprus reginae — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Liophis reginae — BERNARDE et al. 2012
Liophis reginae — CATENAZZI et al. 2013
Liophis reginae — COLE et al. 2013
Liophis reginae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 385

Erythrolamprus reginae semilineata (WAGLER 1824)
Natrix semilineata WAGLER 1824: 33
Liophis reginae semilineatus — KORNACKER 1999
Liophis reginae semilineatus — FROTA et al. 2005
Erythrolamprus reginae semilineata — SANTOS-COSTA et al. 2015

Erythrolamprus reginae macrosomus (AMARAL 1936)
Leimadophis reginae macrosoma AMARAL 1936: 238
Leimadophis reginae maculicauda HOGE 1954: 241
Leimadophis reginae macrosoma — HOGE 1959: 69
Leimadophis reginae macrosoma — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 149
Liophis reginae macrostoma [sic] — DIXON 1983
Liophis macrosomus reginae - CEI 1993
Liophis reginae macrosomus — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 23
Liophis reginae macrosoma — LIMA-SILVEIRA et al. 2010 
DistributionEcuador (Amazonas), Colombia, Venezuela (e.g. Falcon [HR 30: 115], Amazonas), French Guiana,
Brazil (Goias, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Para, Rio Grande do Sul, Bahia, S Ceará), Peru (Pasco etc.), Bolivia, Trinidad, N Guyana, Paraguay, Argentina (Salta, Formosa, Corrientes, Misiones)

macrosoma: Chaco Boreal and Cerrado vegetation or Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia

reginae: Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana.

semilineatus: Amazonian Ecuador, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, Brazil (including Atlanlic Forest, Pará)

Type locality: “Indiis”; restricted to Suriname by DIXON 1983. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: NRM (also given as RMS)
Lectotype: ZSM 1832/0/1 (ZSMH 1832/0 A in Hoogmoed & Gruber 1983), male [semilineata] 
CommentSynonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. L. r. zweifeli has been confused with Liophis miliaris (see Kornacker et al. 2002). WALLACH et al. 2014 list Leimadophis reginae macrosoma and Natrix semilineata as synonyms of Liophis reginae. Dixon 1983 placed Erythrolamprus oligolepis in the synonymy of Liophis reginae semilineata but CUNHA & NASCIMENTO 1993 revalidated it as Leimadophis oligolepis.

Distribution: overall distribution not corrected for removal of zweifeli and oligolepis.

Subspecies: Erythrolamprus reginae zweifeli (ROZE 1959) has been elevated to full species status.

Liophis zweifeli differs from L. reginae (meristic and colour characters taken from Dixon 1983a) in having a salt-and-pepper dorsal pattern (vs dorsum with dense pale and dark paravertebral flecking in L. reginae) and in having a higher number of subcaudal scales (69−88 vs 55−78 in L. r. reginae).

Habitat: forest 
References
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