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Erythrolamprus torrenicola (DONNELLY & MYERS, 1991)

IUCN Red List - Erythrolamprus torrenicola - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Velvety swamp snake
S: Reinita verde, Mansé 
SynonymLiophis torrenicola DONNELLY & MYERS 1991: 41
Liophis torrenicola — KORNACKER 1999: 109
Liophis torrenicola— BARRIO-AMOROS & BREWER-CARIAS 2008
Erythrolamprus torrenicola — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Liophis torrenicolus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 386 
DistributionVenezuela (Bolívar)

Type locality: North side of Cerro Guaiquinima (1030 m elevation), Estado Bolívar, Venezuela. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: AMNH 136211 
CommentDiagnosis: A Liophis of the cobella group (sensu Dixon, 1983: 149), distinguished from the geographically proximate L. c. cobella as follows: (1) by greater number of ventrals (168, 173 in 8 torrenicola, vs. 143-164, xc = 151.6 in cobella);'1 (2) by white to orange ventral surfaces in life (red in cobella fide Beebe, 1946, Dixon, 1983); (3) by a distinct pale neck ring (figs. 26-27, 28A) persisting into maturity (less well defined ring present or absent in juvenile cobella [fig. 28B, C in DONNELLY & MYERS 1991] but lost in adults); (4) by a juvenile pattern (faint in adult) on the side of the body showing alternating dark and light triangular bands (vague banding not triangular in young cobella, cf. fig. 28A-C). The laterally triangular juvenile blotches and the neck ring also may distinguish Liophis torrenicola from the two other named Venezuelan tepui species. Also, L. torrenicola has a dark-checkered venter with a considerable extent of pale ground color (figs. 26, 27), whereas L. trebbaui (Auyantepui) differs in having the ventral black markings forming broad transverse bands about the width of two ventral plates (fide Roze, 1958a, fig. 11 and text description of the types). Liophis ingeri (Chimanta Tepui) agrees with L. trebbaui and not with L. torrenicola in having an extensively black-marked venter that is as much cross-banded as checkered (fig. 31), but L. ingeri differs from both L. torrenicola and L. trebbaui in having posterior head plates and anterior body scales vaguely pale spotted or reticulated (fig. 30, and Roze, 1958b). 
EtymologyThe species name, a noun in apposition, is derived from the Latin torrens (a swift or violent stream) + connective -i + the suffix -cola (inhabitant). 
References
  • Barrio-Amorós, César L. & Brewer-Carias, Charles 2008. Herpetological results of the 2002 expedition to Sarisari–ama, a tepui in Venezuelan Guayana, with the description of five new species. Zootaxa 1942: 1-68 - get paper here
  • Donnelly M A; Myers C W 1991. Herpetological results of the 1990 Venezuelan Expedition to the summit of Cerro Guaiquinima, with new tepui reptiles. American Museum Novitates (3017): 1-54 - get paper here
  • Fernandes, D. S. ; Germano, V. J. ; Fernandes, R. ; Franco, F. L. 2002. Taxonomic status of the lowland species of the Liophis cobella group with comments on the species of the Venenzuelan Tepuis (Serpentes, Colubridae). Boletim do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro 481: 1-14
  • Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x - get paper here
  • Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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