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Erythrolamprus zweifeli (ROZE, 1959)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesZweifel’s Ground Snake 
SynonymLeimadophis zweifeli ROZE 1959: 4
Liophis reginae zweifeli — KORNACKER 1997
Liophis reginae zweifeli — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Liophis reginae zweifeli — BOOS 2001
Liophis reginae zweifeli — KORNACKER & NATERA-MUMAW 2008
Liophis zweifeli — RIVAS et al. 2012
Liophis zweifeli — WALLACH et al. 2014: 395
Erythrolamprus zweifeli — NATERA-MUMAW et al. 2015 
DistributionVenezuela (Trujillo, Falcón, Amazonas, etc.), Trinidad.

Type locality: Rancho Grande in the state of Aragua, Venezuela, at an elevation of 1100 meters, in a cloud forest region.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: MBUCV 95, paraypes: AMNH, CM 
Diagnosis 
CommentSynonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. L. r. zweifeli has been confused with Liophis miliaris (see Kornacker et al. 2002).

Liophis zweifeli differs from L. reginae (meristic and colour characters taken from Dixon 1983a) in having a salt-and-pepper dorsal pattern (vs dorsum with dense pale and dark paravertebral flecking in L. reginae) and in having a higher number of subcaudal scales (69−88 vs 55−78 in L. r. reginae).

Habitat: forest

Diet: stream frogs of the genus Mannophryne, hylid frogs, Leptodactylus validus, salamanders, lizards of the genus Ameiva, and small birds (Murphy et al. 2019) 
Etymology 
References
  • Boos, H.E.A. 2001. The snakes of Trinidad and Tobago. Texas A&M University Press, 270 pp.
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Kornacker, P. & Natera-Mumaw, M. 2008. Feldherpetologische Daten zu einigen Amphibien- und Reptilienarten im Wolkenwald des “Parque Nacional Henri Pittier”, Rancho Grande, Venezuela. Sauria 30 (3): 21-37 - get paper here
  • Kornacker, Paul M.;Dederichs, Ursula 1997. Herpetologische Eindrücke einer Venezuelareise. Elaphe 5 (3): 87-96
  • Murphy JC, Braswell AL, Charles SP, Auguste RJ, Rivas GA, Borzée A, Lehtinen RM, Jowers MJ 2019. A new species of Erythrolamprus from the oceanic island of Tobago (Squamata, Dipsadidae). ZooKeys 817: 131-157 - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Roze, J.A. 1959. Taxonomic notes on a collection of Venezuelan reptiles in the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum Novitates (1934): 1-14 - get paper here
  • Señaris, J. Celsa; María Matilde Aristeguieta Padrón, Haidy Rojas Gil y Fernando J. M. Rojas-Runjaic 2018. Guía ilustrada de los anfibios y reptiles del valle de Caracas, Venezuela. Ediciones IVIC, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC). Caracas, Venezuela. 348 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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