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Eryx miliaris (PALLAS, 1773)

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Higher TaxaBoidae (Erycinae, Erycidae), Henophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesEryx miliaris nogaiorum NIKOLSKY 1910
Eryx miliaris miliaris (PALLAS 1773) 
Common NamesE: Dwarf Sand Boa, Desert Sand Boa, Tartar Sand Boa
G: Wüstensandboa, Östliche Sandboa
Russian: Песчаный удавчик 
SynonymAnguis miliaris PALLAS 1773
Anguis helluo PALLAS 1814
Eryx miliaris — EICHWALD 1831
Eryx miliaris var. roborowskii BEDRIAGA 1906: 193
Eryx miliaris var. koslowi BEDRIAGA 1906: 193
Eryx miliaris rarus TZAREVSKY 1916
Eryx miliaris tritus TZAREVSKY 1916
Eryx miliaris incerta TZAREVSKY 1916
Eryx tataricus bogdanovi TZAREVSKY 1916
Eryx rickmersi WERNER 1930
Eryx jaculus miliaris — LEVITON 1959
Eryx richmersi WERNER 1930 (fide R. KHALIKOV, pes. comm.)
Eryx miliaris — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Eryx miliaris — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 207
Eryx miliaris — WALLACH et al. 2014: 289
Eryx cf. miliaris — RHADI et al. 2017

Eryx miliaris nogaiorum NIKOLSKY 1910
Eryx miliaris nogaiorum NIKOLSKY 1910: 90
Eryx miliaris nogaiorum — JONES 2004
Eryx miliaris nogaiorum — VEDMEDERYA et al. 2009 
DistributionS Russia from western border of Caspian Sea (Caucasus) through Kazakhstan, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China (Xinjiang through Gansu to W Nei Mongol = Inner Mongolia, Ningxia),
Mongolia

Type locality: coast of the Caspian Sea

nogaiorum: Type locality: "Nogai Steppe between the lower reaches of the Terk and Kuma rivers" [north-eastern Precaucasus] fide Nikolsky 1916:34.  
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: lost (presumed) fide KLUGE 1993
Syntypes: ZMT [Caucasian Museum], as indicated by Nikolsky (1916:34) [nogaiorum] 
Diagnosis 
CommentSubspecies: ROSS & MARZEC (1990) recognized the black sand boa, Eryx miliaris nogaiorum, as a distinct species; however, they gave no reference to document that change in status. See also reynold et al. 2014 for the relationship of E. miliaris and E. tataricus.

Distribution: The NE Iranian populations of E. tataricus are conspecific with E. miliaris (ESKANDARZADEH et al. 2013). The populations from China may be included in T. tataricus now. Not in Iran fide Zarrintab et al. 2017.

Synonymy after KLUGE 1993. 
Etymology 
References
  • Bedriaga, JACQUES VON 1907. Verzeichnis der von der Central-Asiatischen Expedition unter Stabs-Kapitän W. Roborowski in den Jahren 1893-1895 gesammelten Reptilien. Annu. Mus. Zool. Acad. Impér. Sci. St.-Petersbourg, 10 (3-4): 159-200 [1905] - get paper here
  • Belik V.P. 2014. To the history of research on the amphibian and reptile fauna in the Volgograd Region. Current Studies in Herpetology 14 (1/2): 3–13. Резюме - get paper here
  • Darewskij,I. 1993. Eryx miliaris - Östliche Sandboa. In: Böhme,W. (ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band 3/I., Schlangen (Serpentes) I. Aula-Verlag Wiesbaden, pp. 55-66
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  • ESKANDARZADEH, Naeimeh; Jamshid DARVISH, Eskandar RASTEGAR-POUYANI, Fereshteh GHASSEMZADEH 2013. Reevaluation of the taxonomic status of sand boas of the genus Eryx (Daudin, 1803) (Serpentes: Boidae) in northeastern Iran. Turkish Journal of Zoology 37: 348-356 - get paper here
  • Gruber, U. 2009. Die Schlangen Europas, 2. Aufl. Kosmos Naturführer, 266 pp.
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  • Jones, C. 2004. Sand Boas. Reptilia (GB) (34): 12-23 - get paper here
  • Jones, C. 2004. Zur Vermehrung eurasischer Sandboas: Eryx jaculus, Eryx miliaris und Eryx tataricus. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (47): 35-39 - get paper here
  • Jones, C. 2004. Zur Haltung und Pflege von Sandboas. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (47): 31-34 - get paper here
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  • Pallas,P.S. 1773. Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reiches, vol. 2. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., St. Petersburg, 744pp. - get paper here
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  • Reynolds, R. Graham; Matthew L. Niemiller, Liam J. Revell 2014. Toward a Tree-of-Life for the boas and pythons: Multilocus species-level phylogeny with unprecedented taxon sampling. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 71: 201–213 [published online in 2013] - get paper here
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  • Schmidt, D. & Kunz, K. 2005. Ernährung von Schlangen. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 159 pp. - get paper here
  • Shaposhnikov, A. V. 2001. About new record of Eryx miliaris on the Mt. Bol'shoi Bogdo in Astrakhan' Region, Russia. Russ. J. Herpetol. 8 (1): 79 - get paper here
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  • Vedmederya, Valeriy; Oleksandr Zinenko, and Andrei Barabanov 2009. An Annotated Type Catalogue of Amphibians and Reptiles in the Museum of Nature at V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (Kharkiv, Ukraine). Russ. J. Herpetol. 16 (3): 203-212 - get paper here
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  • Zarrintab, Mohammad; Konstantin D. Milto, Naeimeh Eskandarzadeh, Bahman Zangi, Mohammad Jahan, Haji Gholi Kami, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani and Mahdi Rajabizadeh 2017. Taxonomy and distribution of sand boas of the genus Eryx Daudin, 1803 (Serpentes: Erycidae) in Iran Zoology in the Middle East 63 (2): 117
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