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Euspondylus maculatus TSCHUDI, 1845

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesSpotted Sun Tegus 
SynonymEuspondylus maculatus TSCHUDI 1845: 161
Ecpleopus (Euspondylus) maculatus - PETERS 1862: 206
Ecpleopus (Proctoporus) Fraseri O’SHAUGHNESSY 1879: 296
Euspondylus maculatus — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 121
Euspondylus maculatus — KÖHLER 2003 
DistributionPeru (Puno, Madre de Dios), S Ecuador

Type locality: Peru; specified as vicinity of Moyobamba, Peru, by TSCHUDI (1846: 43). Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: Not located (fide TORRES-CARVAJAL 2001) 
CommentSynonymy that of PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970 (who cite O’SHAUGHNESSY 1897, which seems to be a typo).

Type species: Euspondylus maculatus TSCHUDI 1845 is the type species of the genus Euspondylus TSCHUDI 1845.

Taxonomy (genus): The taxonomy of Euspondylus is problematic due to the unclear generic diagnosis and species assignations with members of the genus Proctoporus. According to the traditional generic diagnosis by Peters and Donoso-Barros (1970), Euspondylus is characterized by the presence of anterior nasal scales separated by rostral and frontonasal scales, and prefrontal and dorsal scales that are not granular, whereas Proctoporus lacks prefrontal scales and has either keeled or striated dorsal scales. Köhler and Lehr (2004) recognized much variation in the presence of prefrontal scales in Euspondylus spinalis from Peru, and suggested that the presence versus absence of prefrontal scales is not a determining character for the separation of Proctoporus and Euspondylus, questioning the separation of the two genera. Doan and Castoe (2005) separated two genera from Proctoporus: Riama and Petracola;
The definition of Euspondylus has always been vague (Uzzell 1973), but was generally considered to be similar to Proctoporus but possessing prefrontal scales (Doan 2003; Köhler & Lehr 2004), which Proctoporus species, until the recent new combinations, did not (Goicoechea et al. 2012). Now that this distinction between the two genera has been removed, unique diagnostic characters for Euspondylus do not exist and it is possible that all Euspondylus species may belong within Proctoporus (Goicoechea et al. 2012) or that some species are more closely allied to Anadia Gray (Kok & Rivas 2011, Doan & Adams 2015).

Distribution: Probably also in Bolivia (fide LANGSTROTH 2005). 
References
  • Köhler, G. 2003. Two new species of Euspondylus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Peru. Salamandra 39 (1): 5-20 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. and E. Lehr 2004. Comments on Euspondylus and Proctoporus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Peru, with the description of three new species and a key to the Peruvian species. Herpetologica 60 (4):501-518 - get paper here
  • Langstroth, R.P. 2005. Adiciones probables y confirmadas para la saurofauna boliviana. Kempffiana 1 (1): 101-128
  • O’Shaughnessy,A.W.E. 1879. Description of new species of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 4: 295-303 - get paper here
  • Peters, James A. & Donoso-Barros, Roberto 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 293 pp. - get paper here
  • Peters,W. 1863. Über Cercosaura und die mit dieser Gattung verwandten Eidechsen aus Südamerika. Abh. Berlin Akad. 1862: 165-225
  • Torres-Carvajal, O. 2001. Lizards of Ecuador: Checklist, Distribution, and Systematic References. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (131): 1-35 - get paper here
  • Tschudi,J. J. von 1845. Reptilium conspectum quae in republica Peruana reperiuntur er pleraque observata vel collecta sunt in itenere. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 11 (1): 150-170 [reprint 1968, SSAR; sometimes cited as being published in 1846]. - get paper here
 
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