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Gambelia sila (STEJNEGER, 1890)

IUCN Red List - Gambelia sila - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaCrotaphytidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Bluntnose (Blunt-nosed) Leopard Lizard, San Joaquin Leopard Lizard 
SynonymCrotaphytus silus STEJNEGER 1890: 105
Gambelia wislizenii silus — SMITH 1946: 164
Crotaphytus wislizeni silus — SCHMIDT 1953: 117
Gambelia silus — STEBBINS 1985: 124
Gambelia sila — FROST & COLINS 1988: 73
Gambelia sila — CROTHER 2000
Gambelia sila — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009 
DistributionUSA (C California: San Joaquin Valley and the surrounding foothills, the Carrizo Plains south over the Temblor and Caliente Ranges into the Middle Cuyama Valley).

Type locality: "Fresno, Cal."  
TypesHolotype: USNM 11790 (also given as 11709A) 
CommentHybridization: Gambelia sila and Gambelia wislizenii hybridize (Montanucci 1970) 
  • Bailey, C.V., and D.J. Germano. 2015. Probability of Occupancy of Blunt-nosed Leopard Lizards on Habitat Patches of Various Sizes in the San Joaquin Desert of California. Western Wildlife 2:23-28. - get paper here
  • CLARK, HOWARD O.; GRAHAM L. BIDDY & DENNIS LEDERER. 2022. Photographic Documentation of Blunt-nosed Leopard Lizard (Gambelia sila) Reproductive Behaviors. Sonoran Herpetologist 35(2): 77–78. - get paper here
  • Collins, J.T. and T. W. Taggart 2009. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Sixth Edition. Center for North American Herpetology, 48 pp.
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Frost, D. R.;Collins, J. T. 1988. Nomenclatural notes on reptiles of the United States. Herpetological Review 19 (4): 73-74 - get paper here
  • GAUDENTI, NICOLE; EMILY N. TAYLOR & MICHAEL F. WESTPHAL. 2021. GAMBELIA SILA (Blunt-nosed Leopard Lizard). DEFENSIVE BEHAVIOR. Herpetological Review 52 (1): 141–142. - get paper here
  • Germano, D.J., and L.R. Saslaw. 2015. Predation by the Long-nosed Snake (Rhinocheilus lecontei) on the Endangered Blunt-nosed Leopard Lizard (Gambelia sila). Western Wildlife 2:7-8. - get paper here
  • Germano, D.J., and L.R. Saslaw. 2015. Subcutaneous Neoplasm on the Chin of an Endangered Blunt-nosed Leopard Lizard (Gambelia sila). Western Wildlife 2:35-37. - get paper here
  • Germano, D.J., E.N. Tennant, and L.R. Saslaw. 2015. Predation Events on the Endangered Blunt-nosed Leopard Lizard (Gambelia sila) Including Another by the Long-nosed Snake (Rhinocheilus lecontei). Western Wildlife 2:44-45. - get paper here
  • Germano, David J. 2019. PREDATION OF THE ENDANGERED BLUNT-NOSED LEOPARD LIZARD (GAMBELIA SILA) IN THE SAN JOAQUIN DESERT OF CALIFORNIA. The Southwestern Naturalist 63(4), 276-280, (7 October 2019) - get paper here
  • Germano, David J. and Galen B. Rathbun 2015. Home Range and Habitat Use by Blunt-nosed Leopard Lizards in the Southern San Joaquin Desert of California. Journal of Herpetology 50 (3): 429-434. - get paper here
  • Grimes, Adam J.; Gwynne Corrigan, David J. Germano, and Paul T. Smith 2014. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the endangered blunt-nosed leopard lizard, Gambelia sila. Southwestern Naturalist Mar 2014, Vol. 59, No. 1: 38-46. - get paper here
  • IVEY, KATHLEEN N.; MARGARET B. CORNWALL, NICOLE GAUDENTI, PAUL H. MAIER, NARGOL GHAZIAN, MALORY OWEN, EMMELEIA NIX, MARIO ZULIANI, CHRISTOPHER J. LORTIE, MICHAEL F. WESTPHAL & EMILY N. TAYLOR. 2022. Temperature-based activity estimation accurately predicts surface activity, but not microhabitat use, in the Endangered heliothermic lizard Gambelia sila. Amphib. Reptile Conserv. 16(1): 25–34. - get paper here
  • Jennings M R. 1995. Gambelia sila. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (612): 1-4. - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • McGuire, J. A. 1996. Phylogenetic systematics of crotaphytid lizards (Reptilia: Iguania: Crotaphytidae). Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History 32: 1-142 - get paper here
  • Montanucci, R. R. 1965. Observations on the San Joaquin leopard lizard, Crotaphytus wislizenii silus Stejneger. Herpetologica 21 (4): 270-283 - get paper here
  • Montanucci, R. R. 1970. Analysis of hybridization between Crotaphytus wislizenii and Crotaphytus silus (Sauria: Iguanidae) in California. Copeia 1970 (1): 104-123 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. 1953. A Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 6th ed. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Chicago, 280 pp. - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1946. Handbook of Lizards: Lizards of the United States and of Canada. Comstock, Ithaca, NY, xxii + 557 pp.
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Stejneger, L. 1890. Results of a biological survey of the San Francisco Mountain region and Desert of the Little Colorado, Arizona. Part V. Annotated list of reptiles and batrachians collected by Dr. C. Hart Merriam and Vernon Bailey on the San Francisco Mountain Platea North American Fauna, No. 3: 103-118 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, L.H. 1893. Annotated list of the reptiles and batrachians collected by the Death Valley Expedition in 1891, with descriptions of new species. North American Fauna, No. 7: 159-228 (+ 14 plates + 4 maps) - get paper here
  • Switak, Karl-Heinz 2014. Der Leopard unter den Reptilien. Terraria-Elaphe 2014 (2): 26-33 - get paper here
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