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Geophis hoffmanni (PETERS, 1859)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesHoffmann's Earth Snake 
SynonymColobognathus Hoffmanni PETERS 1859: 276
E(lapoides) Hoffmanni — JAN 1862: 21
Elapoides Hoffmanni — JAN 1865
Geophis hoffmanni - BOCOURT 1883: 529
Geophis hoffmanni — BOULENGER 1894: 319
Catastoma hoffmanni — AMARAL 1929: 192
Geophis hoffmani — DUNN 1942: 4 (in error)
Geophis bartholomewi BRATTSTROM & HOWELL 1954
Geophis acutirostris TAYLOR 1954: 391
Geophis hoffmanni - DOWNS 1967: 155
Geophis hoffmanni — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 120
Geophis hoffmanni - VILLA et al. 1988
Geophis hoffmanni — MYERS 2003
Geophis hoffmanni — WILSON & TOWNSEND 2007: 10
Geophis hoffmanni — WALLACH et al. 2014: 302 
DistributionHonduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia (possibly), elevation 18-1670 m.

Type locality: Costa Rica, by implication. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: ZMB 1868 (2 specimens), 1869, 1870, 4003, 4106, BMNH 1946.1.6.54 (formerly BMNH 61.2.10.3), ZMUC 138
Holotype: CAS 91202 (was: UCLA 6163) [bartholomewi] 
CommentSynonymy that of PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970.

Diagnosis: Geophis hoffmanni is distinguished from all other Geophis found in
eNCA (except G. damiani) by having 15 dorsal scale rows present throughout the length of the body (17 dorsal scale rows in G. dunni, G. fulvoguttatus, G. nephodrymus, and G. rhodogaster). Geophis hoffmanni can be differentiated from G. damiani by having a uniform dark dorsal coloration with a pale nuchal band in juveniles (dark dorsal ground coloration with a red nuchal band and red partial bands and laterally offset red blotches in G. damiani), 114–131 ventral scales (136–143 in G. damiani), 23–32 subcaudal scales (34–41 in G. damiani), five or fewer supralabials (six in G. damiani), and posterior chinshields in moderate contact (posterior chinshields separated by first medial gular scale in G. damiani). 
EtymologyNamed after Carl Hoffman (-1859), collector of the types. 
References
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVIII. Lista remissiva dos ophidios da região neotropica. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 126-271 [1929] - get paper here
  • Bauer, A.M.; Günther,R. & Klipfel,M. 1995. The herpetological contributions of Wilhelm C.H. Peters (1815-1883). SSAR Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, 714 pp.
  • Bocourt, M. F. 1883. In A. Duméril, M. F. Bocourt, and F. Mocquard, (1870-1909), Etudes sur les reptiles, p. i-xiv, 1-1012. In Recherches Zoologiques pour servir a l'Histoire de Ia Faune de l'Amérique Centrale et du Mexique. Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amér Imprimerie Imper., Paris - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Brattstrom, B. H., & HOWELL, T. R. 1954. Notes on some collections of reptiles and amphibians from Nicaragua. Herpetologica 10: 114-123. - get paper here
  • Downs, F. L. 1967. lntrageneric relations among colubrid snakes of the genus Geophis Wagler. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 131: 1-193. - get paper here
  • Dunn, Emmett Reid 1942. New or Noteworthy Snakes from Panama. Notulae Naturae 108:1-8.
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 12. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Lips K R. Savage J M. 1994. A new fossorial snake of the genus Geophis (Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae) from the Cordillera de Talamanca of Costa Rica. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 107 (2): 410-416. - get paper here
  • McCranie J R 2011. The snakes of Honduras. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 725 pp.
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • Mendenhall, Chase D.; Luke O. Frishkoff, Georgina Santos-Barrera, Jesús Pacheco, Eyobed Mesfun, Fernando Mendoza Quijano, Paul R. Ehrlich, Gerardo Ceballos, Gretchen C. Daily, and Robert M. Pringle 2014. Countryside biogeography of Neotropical reptiles and amphibians. Ecology 95:856–870, http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/12-2017.1 - get paper here
  • Myers, C.W. 2003. Rare Snakes—Five New Species from Eastern Panama: Reviews of Northern Atractus and Southern Geophis (Colubridae: Dipsadinae). American Museum Novitates 3391: 1-47 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters,W. 1859. Über die von Hrn. Dr. Hoffmann in Costa Rica gesammelten und an das Königl. Zoologische Museum gesandten Schlangen. Monatsber. Königl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1859: 275-278 - get paper here
  • Restrepo T J H; Wright J W 1987. A new species of the colubrid snake genus Geophis from Colombia. Journal of Herpetology 21 (3): 191-196 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Savage, Jay M.; Watling, James I. 2008. Not so rare snakes: a revision of the Geophis sieboldi group (Colubridae: Dipsadinae) in lower Central America and Colombia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 153(3):561-599
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202. - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1954. Further studies on the serpents of Costa Rica. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 36: 673-800. - get paper here
  • Townsend, J. H. 2006. INVENTORY AND CONSERVATION ASSESSMENT OF THE HERPETOFAUNA OF THE SIERRA DE OMOA, HONDURAS, WITH A REVIEW OF THE Geophis (SQUAMATA: COLUBRIDAE) OF EASTERN NUCLEAR CENTRAL AMERICA. PhD thesis, University of Florida, 138 pp.
  • Townsend, Josiah H. 2009. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION IN GEOPHIS NEPHODRYMUS (SQUAMATA: COLUBRIDAE), WITH COMMENTS ON CONSERVATION OF GEOPHIS IN EASTERN NUCLEAR CENTRAL AMERICA. Herpetologica 65 (3): 292-302 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • WILSON, L.D. & J.H. TOWNSEND 2007. A checklist and key to the snakes of the genus Geophis (Squamata: Colubridae: Dipsadinae), with commentary on distribution and conservation. Zootaxa 1395: 1-31 - get paper here
 
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