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Gerrhonotus liocephalus WIEGMANN, 1828

IUCN Red List - Gerrhonotus liocephalus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaAnguidae (Gerrhonotinae), Diploglossa, Anguimorpha, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesGerrhonotus liocephalus liocephalus WIEGMANN 1828
Gerrhonotus liocephalus austrinus HARTWEG & TIHEN 1946
Gerrhonotus liocephalus loweryi TIHEN 1948 
Common NamesTexas Alligator Lizard 
SynonymGerrhonotus liocephalus liocephalus WIEGMANN 1828
Gerrhonotus liocephalus WIEGMANN 1828: 381
Gerrhonotus liocephalus liocephalus — COPE 1900: 516
Gerrhonotus tesselatus WIEGMANN 1834: 32
Scincus ventralis PEALE & GREEN 1838: 233
Gerrhonotus tesselatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 405
Pterogasterus ventralis — COPE 1878: 96
Pterogasterus tesselatus — COPE 1878: 96
Gerrhonotus liocephalus — BOULENGER 1885: 275
Gerrhonotus liocephalus liocephalus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 203
Gerrhonotus liocephalus — WERMUTH 1969: 20
Gerrhonotus liocephalus — LINER 1994
Gerrhonotus liocephalus — KÖHLER 2000: 43
Gerrhonotus liocephalus — MATA-SILVA et al. 2015

Gerrhonotus liocephalus austrinus HARTWEG & TIHEN 1946
Gerrhonotus liocephalus austrinus HARTWEG & TIHEN 1946
Gerrhonotus liocephalus austrinus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 204
Gerrhonotus liocephalus austrinus — WERMUTH 1969: 20

Gerrhonotus liocephalus loweryi TIHEN 1948
Gerrhonotus liocephalus loweryi TIHEN 1948: 302
Gerrhonotus liocephalus loweryi — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 204
Gerrhonotus liocephalus loweryi — WERMUTH 1969: 21 
DistributionS USA (Texas),
Mexico (Coahuila, E Chihuahua, Durango, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, Aguascalientes, Hidalgo [HR 35: 187], Jalisco, Tamaulipas)

austrinus: Chiapas. Type locality: 3,200 meters elevation on Cerro Malé, Porvenir, Chiapas.

liocephalus: Central plateau region, from Guanajuato to Guerrero and Oaxaca; Sinaloa, Distrito Federal, México, Puebla, Morelos. Type locality: Mexico. Restricted to Tlapancingo, Oaxaca by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

loweryi: San Luis Potosí. Type locality: Xilitla region, San Luis Potosí.

ventralis: Type locality: “mining districts of Mexico” Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: ZMB 1153 (liocephalus)
Holotype: UMMZ 94921 [austrinus]
Holotype: La. State Univ. Mus. 480 [loweryi]
Holotype: USNM 30206 [ophiurus]
Holotype: ZMB 1153 [tesselatus]
Syntypes: (2) ANSP 9026-27 [ventralis] 
CommentSubspecies: Gerrhonotus liocephalus infernalis BAIRD 1858 has been elevated to species status. Gerrhonotus liocephalus ophiurus COPE 1867 is now considered as a valid species.

Type species: Gerrhonotus tesselatus WIEGMANN 1834 is the type species of the genus Gerrhonotus WIEGMANN 1828.

Note that FITZINGER (1843) designated Gerrhonotus tesselatus WIEGMANN 1834 as type species of the genus Gerrhonotus WIEGMANN 1828 although the species had not even described at that time. This is not valid according to the code. However, since G. tesselatus is a synonym of G. liocephalus, the species is a valid type of the genus (fide WERMUTH 1965). Pterogaster has been established by PEALE & GREEN (1830-1838?).

Distribution: Not listed by COLLINS & TAGGART 2009 for North America. Not in Guatemala fide KÖHLER 2008 (although KÖHLER 2000 reported it from there). Not listed for San Luis Potosí by Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013. 
EtymologyThe generic name was derived from the Greek words gerrhon, meaning "wickerwork or screen" and notos, meaning "back," in reference to the gridlike arrangement of the dorsal scales in the type species (Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013). 
References
  • Baird,S.F. 1859. Description of new genera and species of North American lizards in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 10: 253-256 [1858] - get paper here
  • Bartlett, R. D. & Bartlett, P. 1999. A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas, 331 pp.
  • Bocourt 1872. Description de quelques Gerronotes nouveaux provenant du Mexique et de l’Afrique Centrale. Bull. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 7 (4): 101-108 [1871] - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Bryson, R.W. & Lazcano, D. 2005. Gerrhonotus parvus. Reptilia (GB) (39): 69-72 - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • CASTIGLIA,RICCARDO; FLAVIA ANNESI, ALEXANDRA M.R. BEZERRA, ANDRÉS GARCÍA & OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA 2010. Cytotaxonomy and DNA taxonomy of lizards (Squamata, Sauria) from a tropical dry forest in the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve on the coast of Jalisco, Mexico. Zootaxa 2508: 1–29 - get paper here
  • Castro Franco, R. & M. G. Bustos-Zagal 2003. Lagartijas de Morelos, México: distribución, hábitat y conservación. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n.s.) 88:123-142
  • Castro-Franco, Rubén, María Guasalupe Bustos-Zagal 1994. List of reptiles of Morelos, Mexico, and their distribution in relation to vegetation types. Southwestern Naturalist 39 (2): 171-175 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1867. Fifth contribution lo the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 18 [1866]: 317-323 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1878. Tenth contribution to the herpetology of Tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 17: 85-98 [1877] - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1900. The crocodilians, lizards and snakes of North America. Ann. Rep. U.S. Natl. Mus. 1898: 153-1270 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol.5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Flury, Alvin 1949. Gerrhonotus liocephalus infernalis Baird in Texas. Herpetologica 5: 65-67 - get paper here
  • García, A. & Ceballos, G. 1994. GUIA DE CAMPO DE LOS 'REPTILES Y ANFIBIOS DE LA COSTA DE JALISCO, MEXICO. FUNDACION ECOLOGICA DE CUIXMALA, A.C. INSTITUTO DE BIOLOGIA, UNAM
  • Gloyd, Howard K.;Smith, Hobart M. 1942. Amphibians and reptiles from the Carmen Mountains, Coahuila. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 6 (13): 231-235
  • Good, David A. 1994. Species limits in the genus Gerrhonotus (Squamata: Anguidae). Herpetological Monographs 8: 180-202 - get paper here
  • Good, David A.; Bauer, Aaron M.;Günther, Rainer 1993. An Annotated Type Catalogue of the Anguimorph Lizards (Squamata: Anguidae, Helodermatidae, Varanidae, Xenosauridae) in the Zoological Museum, Berlin. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl. 69 (1): 45-56
  • Günther, A. C. L. G. 1885. Reptilia and Batrachia. Biologia Centrali-Américana. Taylor, & Francis, London, 326 pp. [published in parts from 1885-1902; reprint by the SSAR 1987] - get paper here
  • Hartweg, N., & TIHEN, J. E. 1946. Lizards of the genus Gerrhonotus from Chiapas, México. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan No. 497: 1-5
  • Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329. - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Langner, Christian 2014. Herpetologische Beobachtungen im Lebensraum von Abronia deppii im Valle de Bravo, Estado de México, Mexiko. Terraria-Elaphe 2014 (2): 46-55
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A., David Chiszar, and Hobart M. Smith 2004. Selected Records of 2003 Lizards from Chihuahua and Sonora, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 39 (9): 164-168
  • Martin, Plul S. 1958. A biogeography of reptiles and amphibians in the Gomez Farias Region, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Miscellaneous publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (101): 1-102 + 7 plates - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • Morales, Alejandro, Daniel Ariano-Sanchez and David Moràn. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Gerrhonotus liocephalus (Wiegmann's alligator lizard). Herpetological Review 46 (2): 217
  • O’Shaughnessy, A. W. E. 1873. Herpetological notes. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 12: 44-48 - get paper here
  • Ramirez-Bautista, A. et al. 1998. Gerrhonotus liocephalus (Texas Alligator lizard). Mexico: Aguascalientes. Herpetological Review 29 (3): 174 - get paper here
  • Ramirez-Bautista, Aurelio;Vazquez-Diaz, Joel;Quintero-Diaz, Gustavo 1998. Geographic Distribution. Gerrhonotus liocephalus. Herpetological Review 29 (2): 110 - get paper here
  • Smith,H.M. & Taylor,E.H. 1950. An annotated checklist and key to the reptiles of Mexico exclusive of the snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 199: 1-253 - get paper here
  • Tihen, J. A. 1954. Gerrhonotine lizards recently added to the American Museum collection, with further revisions of the genus Abronia. American Museum Novitates (1687): 1-26 - get paper here
  • Valdez-Lares, R.; R. Muñiz-Martínez; E.Gadsden; G. Aguirre-León; G. Castañeda-Gaytán; R. Gonzalez-Trápaga 2013. Checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, México. Check List 9 (4):714-724 - get paper here
  • Vázquez Díaz, Joel;Quintero Díaz, Gustavo E. 2005. Anfibios y Reptiles de Aguascalientes [2nd ed.]. CONABIO, CIEMA, 318 pp.
  • Webb, R.G. 1984. Herpetogeography in the Mazatlán-Durango Region of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Vetrebrate Ecology and Systematics - A ribute to Henry S. Fitch; Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, pp. 217-241
  • Webb, Robert G.;Hensley, Max 1959. Notes on reptiles from the Mexican State of Durango. Publications of the Museum - Michigan State University, Biological Series 1 (6): 249-258
  • Wiegmann,A.F.A. 1828. Beyträge zur Amphibienkunde. Isis von Oken 21 (4): 364-383 - get paper here
  • Wiegmann,A.F.A. 1834. Herpetologia Mexicana, seu descriptio amphibiorum novae hispaniae , quae itineribus comitis de Sack, Ferdinandi Deppe et Chr. Guil. Schiede im Museum Zoologicum Berolinense Pervenerunt. Pars prima, saurorum species. Berlin, Lüderitz, iv + 54 pp. - get paper here
 
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