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Gloydius blomhoffii (BOIE, 1826)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesGloydius blomhoffii blomhoffii (BOIE 1826)
Gloydius blomhoffii dubitatus (GLOYD 1977) 
Common NamesE: Mamushi
G: Mamushi 
SynonymTrigonocephalus Blomhoffii BOIE 1826: 214
Trigonocephalus blomhoffi — SCHLEGEL 1837: 552
Trigonocephalus Blomhoffii — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1496
Trigonocephalus blomhoffi var. megaspilus — COPE 1859: 336
Halys bloomhoffi — PETERS 1862: 671 (in error)
Halys blomhoffi — GÜNTHER 1864: 393
Trigonocephalus Blomhoffii — STRAUCH !868: 296
Ancistrodon blomhoffi — BOULENGER 1896: 525 (part.)
Halys blomhoffi — STONE 1899: 184
Agkistrodon blomhoffi STEJNEGER 1907: 457
Agkistrodon blomhoffii — SCHNEEWEISS 1989
Agkistrodon blomhoffii — WELCH 1994: 11
Gloydius blomhoffi — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 302
Gloydius blomhoffii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 309

Gloydius blomhoffii blomhoffii (BOIE 1826)
Trigonocephalus blomhoffii BOIE 1826
Ancistrodon halys blomhoffii NIKOLSKY 1916
Agkistrodon blomhoffi blomhoffi — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Agkistrodon blomhoffii blomhoffii — WELCH 1994: 11
Gloydius blomhoffii blomhoffii — HOGE & ROMANO-HOGE 1981: 195
Agkistrodon blomhoffii blomhoffii — ORLOV & BARABANOV 1999 
DistributionJapan (main islands, Sadogasbima, Izu Oshima, Hachijojima, Awajishima, Oki, Goto Archipelago, Amakusa, Mageshima, Tanegashima, Yakushima), Korea,
China (S Liaoning, Beijing area, C China west to Guizhou and Sichuan), Russia (Kunashir Island, Kuril Archipelago)

Type locality: Japan

dubitatus: China (Hopei)

megaspilus: Japan (?). Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: ZMA 15179.
Holotype: ANSP 7254 [megaspilus] 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: Zhao 2006 listed Gloydius blomhoffii dubitatus and G. b. siniticus as synonyms of G. brevicaudus, hence he does not list blomhoffi as a Chinese species.

Subspecies: The subspecies “ussuriensis” has been elevated to full species status. For a distribution map of the subspecies and ussuriensis see TRUTNAU (2002). GUMPRECHT et al. (2004) recognized only 2 subspecies, blomhoffi and siniticus. G. b. brevicaudus has been elevated to full species status with siniticus as a subspecies.

Distribution: sometimes erroneously reported from Sakhalin island and Kunashir island (Kuril Archipelago) (Gloyd and Conant, 1990; Golay et al., 1993; David and Ineich, 1999), where it is absolutely absent (Orlov & Barabanov 1999). However, presence on Kunashir has been confirmed by Orlov et al. 2014.

Diet: The diet of Gloydius blomhoffii on Kinkasan Island exclusively consisted of a frog, Rana tagoi, which is the only amphibian species inhabiting Kinkasan Island (Akira & Nagata 2016). 
EtymologyNamed after the collector, Blomhoff, who was also director of the Dutch factory on Decima for more than 10 years during the early part of the 19th century. 
References
  • Alexander, Donald R.;Diener, Richard A. 1958. A collection of amphibians and reptiles from Japan. Copeia 1958 (3): 218-219 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1909. Notes on Amphibia and Reptilia from Eastern Asia. Proc. New England zool. Club 4: 53-78, 2 plates - get paper here
  • Boie. H. 1826. Merkmale einiger japanischer Lurche. lsis von Oken, Jena. 18-19: 203 - 216 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Chen, Y.; Zhang, D.; Jiang, K. & Wang, Z. 1992. Evaluation of Snake Venoms among Agkistrodon Species in China. Asiatic Herpetological Research 4: 58-61 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1860. Catalogue of the venomous serpents in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes on the families, genera and species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1859: 332-347 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Gaulke, M. 2008. Der Avilon Montalban Zoological Park, Philippinen. Reptilia (Münster) 13 (69): 76-81 - get paper here
  • Gloyd, H.K. 1977. Descriptions of new taxa of crotalid snakes from China and Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 90: 1002-1015 - get paper here
  • Goris, R.C. & Maeda, N. 2004. Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Japan. Krieger, Malabar, 285 pp.
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1888. On a collection of reptiles from China. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 1: 165-172 - get paper here
  • Isogawa, K., Moriya, A. & Mitsui, S. 1994. A new snake from the genus Agkistrodon (Serpentes: Viperidae) from Tsushima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture. Japanese Journal of Herpetology 15:101-111.
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mori, Akira and Eiko Nagata 2016. Relying on a Single Anuran Species: Feeding Ecology of a Snake Community on Kinkasan Island, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan Current Herpetology Aug 2016, Vol. 35, No. 2: 106-114. - get paper here
  • Mori,M. 1982. Japans Schlangen, Vols. 1-3 (80, 102, 123 pp.). Tokyo (Igaku-Shoin Ltd.) [bilingual edition in German and Japanese]
  • Orlov, Nikolai L. and Andrei V. Barabanov. 1999. Analysis of nomenclature, classification, and distribution of the Agkistrodon halys - Agkistrodon intermedius complexes: a critical review. Russ. J. Herpetol. 6 (3): 167-192 - get paper here
  • Orlov, Nikolai L.; Yuri Sundukov, Ivan Kropachev 2014. Distribution of Pitvipers of «Gloydius blomhoffii» Complex in Russia with the First Records of Gloydius blomhoffii blomhoffii at Kunashir Island (Kuril Archipelago, Russian Far East). Russ. J. Herpetol. 21 (3): 169-178 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1862. Über die craniologischen Verschiedenheiten der Grubenottern (Trigonocephali) und über eine neue Art der Gattung Bothriechis. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1862 (December): 670-674 - get paper here
  • Sasaki, K.; S. F. Fox, and D. Duvall 2012. Reproductive Ecology and Human-Caused Mortality in the Japanese Mamushi Snake (Gloydius blomhoffii) on the Northernmost Main Island of Japan. Journal of Herpetology 46 (4): 689-695. - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1837. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Partie Descriptive. La Haye (J. Kips, J. HZ. et W. P. van Stockum), 606 S. + xvi - get paper here
  • Schneeweiss, N. 1989. Herpetologische Beobachtungen in der Ussuri-Taiga, Ferner Osten - UdSSR. Salamandra 25 (3-4): 191-202 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • Strauch, A. 1868. Concerning poisonous snakes distributed in Russia. [in Russian]. Trudy Perv. Siezda Russ. Yestestv. Zool., 1: 294 (also cited as Trans. First Conf. Russ. Nat., St.Petersburg, 1: 271-297)
  • Szyndlar, Z. 1984. A description of a small collection of amphibians and reptiles from the People's Democratic Republic of Korea, with notes on the distribution of the herpetofauna in that country. Acta Zool. Cracov. 27 (1): 3-18
  • Toriba, Michihisa 2006. Color aberrants of Gloydius blomhoffii found in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Bulletin of the Herpetological Society of Japan 2006 (1):19-21. - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. 2002. Die Kurzschwanz-Mamushi Agkistrodon blomhoffii brevicaudus STEJNEGER 1907 - eine selten gepflegte ostasiatische Grubenotter. Herpetofauna 24 (138): 19-28 - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. 2002. Einiges über die Biologie und Terrarienhaltung der Ussuri-Mamushi Agkistrodon blomhoffi ussuriensis (EMELIANOV 1929). Herpetofauna 24 (137): 5-12 - get paper here
  • Wall, F. 1906. The snake and its natural foes. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 17: 375-396 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • WANG Xiang-jun, ZHAO Er-mi. 2008. Revised the Taxonomic Status of Gloydius blomhoffii dubitatus and Infraspecific Categories of G. brevicaudus. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 27 (2): 172-177 - get paper here
  • XU, Yan; Qin LIU, Edward A MYERS, , Lian WANG, Song HUANG, Yun HE,Peihao PENG and Peng GUO 2012. Molecular Phylogeny of the Genus Gloydius (Serpentes: Crotalinae). Asian Herpetological Research 3 (2): 127–132 - get paper here
  • Yosida, T.H.; Toriba M. 1986. Chromosome evolution and speciation of reptiles. II. A comparative study on karyotypes of the Chinese mamushi (A. blomhoffii brevicaudus) and the Ussuri mamushi (A. ussuriensis). Proc. Jap. Acad. 62B:17-20
  • Yosida, Tosihide H.; Toriba, Michihisa. 1986. Chromosome evolution and speciation of reptiles. I. Karyotype of the Japanese mamushi, Agkistrodon blomhoffii blomhoffii (Viperidae, Crotalinae) with special regard to the sex chromosomes. Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B: Physical and Biological Sciences 62(1):13-16
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
  • Zhou, Ji-Liang; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Huang, Mei-Hua; Chen, Yong-Jiu; Chen, Xiao-Qing and Yao, Geng-Dong 2001. Phylogenetic relationships among crotalinae based on mitochondrial cytochrome B gene sequence variations [in Chinese]. Acta Zool. Sinica 47 (4): 361-366
 
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