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Gloydius caraganus (EICHWALD, 1831)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Karaganda pitviper
G: Karaganda-Otter 
SynonymTrigonocephalus caraganus EICHWALD 1831
Ancistrodon halys paramonovi NIKOLSKY 1931
Agkistrodon halys caraganus — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Agkistrodon halys caraganus — WELCH 1994: 11
Agkistrodon halys caraganus — LAMBERT 2002
Gloydius halys caraganus — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Gloydius halys caraganus — DAVLETBAKOV et al. 2015
Gloydius halys caraganus — WAGNER et al. 2015
Gloydius caraganus — ASADI et al. 2019 
DistributionUzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan; from the mouth of the Volga to E Kazakhstan

Type locality: Ora orientali caspii maris Tjuk-karaganensi (= Cape Karagan Hill, Mangyshlak Peninsula, eastern edge of the Caspian Sea, western Kazakhstan).  
ReproductionViviparous. 
TypesNeotype: ZISP 2200 Mangyshlak Peninsula. Leg.: K. Baer, 1854 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (caraganus). A relatively slender and moderately stout viper up to 735 mm total length in males (740 mm and more according to Orlov and Barabanov, 1999), to 530 mm in females. Snout seen in profile slightly recurved, supralabial scales usually 8 (71%) sometimes 7. Apical pits absent. Dorsal scales in 23 (rarely 21) rows around midbody; ventral scales between 149-167 (141-183 fide Orlov and Barabanov, 1999); subcaudal scales paired, between 33-47 (16-51 fide Orlov and Barabanov, 1999). General coloration is pale. Body with 36-50 dark transverse bands, not extending low on the sides and with relatively broad light areas between them [WAGNER et al. 2015]. 
CommentVenomous! 
EtymologyThe genus has been named after Howard Kay Gloyd (1902-1978), American herpetologist.

The name of G. h. ubsunurensis is derived from the name of the Ubsunur Hollow which is locat- ed in the south of Tuva (Russia) and north-western Mongolia. 
References
  • Asadi, Atefeh; Claudine Montgelard, Masoud Nazarizadeh, Akram Moghaddasi,<br />Faezeh Fatemizadeh, evgeniy simonov, Haji Gholi Kami & Mohammad Kaboli 2019. Evolutionary history and postglacial colonization of an Asian pit viper (Gloydius halys caucasicus) into transcaucasia revealed by phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses. Scientific Reports 9:1224 - get paper here
  • Davletbakov, A. T.; L. A. Kustareva, D. A. Milko, A. N. Ostastshenko, S. S. Sagymbaev, S. A. Toropov, N. V. Trotchenko 2015. Genetical Fund Cadastre of Kyrgyz Republic. Vol. IV. Phylum Chordata (chordates). Bishkek, 128 p. + XXXVI color tables - get paper here
  • Eichwald, E. 1831. Zoologia specialis, quam expositis animalibus tum vivis, tum fossilibus potissimuni rossiae in universum, et poloniae in specie, in usum lectionum publicarum in Universitate Caesarea Vilnensi. Zawadski, Vilnae. - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Harding, K.A., & Welch, K.R.G. 1980. Venomous snakes of the world; a checklist. Pergamon Press, Oxford 188 pp.
  • Lambert, M.R.K. 2002. Preliminary observations on herpetofaunal diversity in the Almaty region, Southern Kazakhstan (September 1998). Herpetological Bulletin (79): 7-13 - get paper here
  • Nikolsky, A. M. 1931. Eine neue Schlangenunterart aus Turkestan [Ukrainian with German title] Travaux Mus. Zool. (Kiev) 10: 115.
  • Wagner, Philipp; Tiutenko, Arthur; Mazepa, Glib; Borkin, Leo J.; Simonov, Evgeniy 2015. Alai! Alai! – a new species of the Gloydius halys (Pallas, 1776) complex (Viperidae, Crotalinae), including a brief review of the complex. Amphibia-Reptilia 37 (published 31 Dec 2015) DOI: 10.1163/15685381-00003026 - get paper here
  • Welch, K. R. G. 1994. Snakes of the World. A Checklist. I. Venomous snakes. KCM Books, Somerset, England.
 
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