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Gonyosoma oxycephalum (BOIE, 1827)

IUCN Red List - Gonyosoma oxycephalum - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Red-tailed Green Ratsnake
G: Spitzkopfnatter, Rotschwanznatter 
SynonymColuber oxycephalus BOIE 1827: 537
Gonyosoma viride WAGLER 1828
Herpetodryas oxycephalus - SCHLEGEL 1837: 152
Alopecophis chalybeus GRAY 1849: 247
Gonyosoma oxycephalus - BLEEKER 1857
Aepidea robusta HALLOWELL 1861
Gonyosoma oxycephalum — STOLICZKA 1870: 193
Coluber oxycephalus - BOULENGER 1890
Coluber oxycephalus - BOULENGER 1894: 56
Elaphe oxycephala - GRIFFIN 1909
Gonyosoma oxycephala - BARBOUR 1912
Coluber floweri WERNER 1925 (fide SMITH 1928)
Elaphe oxycephala oxycephala - SACKETT 1940
Elaphe oxycephala — SMITH 1943: 144
Coluber jansenii (nec Gonyosoma jansenii BLEEKER 1858) - ROBINSON & KLOSS 1920
Gonyosoma oxycephalum — DOWLING 1958
Gonyosoma oxycephalum — TRUTNAU 1986
Elaphe oxycephala — SCHULZ 1996
Gonyosoma oxycephalum — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 355
Gonyosoma oxycephalum — COX et al. 1998: 53
Gonyosoma oxycephala — GAULKE 2001: 32
Gonyosoma oxycephala — FERNER et al. 2001
Elaphe oxycephala — SHARMA 2004
Gonyosoma oxycephala — BURBRINK & LAWSON 2007 (in error)
Gonyosoma oxycephalum — GAULKE 2011: 281
Gonyosoma oxycephalum — WALLACH et al. et al. 2014: 315
Gonyosoma oxycephalum — CHEN et al. 2014
Gonyosoma floweri — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 169 
DistributionIndonesia (Bangka, Belitung, Java, Kalimantan, Borneo, Karimata, Legundi, Lombok, Mentawai Archipelago, Natuna Archipelago, Nias, Panaitan, Riau Archipelago, Sebuku, Sumatra, Tambelan Archipelago),
Malaysia (Malaya and East Malaysia, Pulau Tioman ?),
Singapore Island, Penang Island,
India (Andaman Islands),
Myanmar (= Burma), Thailand (incl. Phuket), Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam,
Philippines (Balabac, Bohol, Lubang, Luzon, Negros, Palawan, Sulu Archipelago, Panay, Agusan del Sur, Dinagat Island)

Type locality: Indonesia: Java (Boie, 1827) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MNHN (lost fide SANG et al. 2009). 
CommentDistribution: Has been reported from the Nicobar Islands but is not listed by DAS 1999 for the Nicobar Islands. The report from Pulau Tioman remains unconfirmed (fide HIEN et al. 2001).

Type species: Gonyosoma viride WAGLER 1828 (= Gonyosoma oxycephalum) is the type species of the genus Gonyosoma WAGLER 1828.

Diagnosis. The genus Gonyosoma is comprised of six currently recognized species (Table 3), which form a monophyletic group based on Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference using six genes. Morphological characters for this genus are listed as follows: body size from medium to large (80 cm to 240 cm); body slender, compressed, head elongated and distinct from neck; relatively large eyes with round pupil; tail relatively long (20% to 30% of total length) and slender; various color patterns represented but generally displaying some green, yellowish or tan ground color; single preocular; postoculars two; mid-body dorsal scales rows 19 or 23; mid-dorsal scales smooth or weakly keeled; 186–257 ventral scales with well-developed lateral keels; 91–149 paired subcaudals; precloacal plate usually divided (some Gonyosoma prasinum populations remain undivided); primarily arboreal or semi-arboreal and mainly found in tropical rain forest or subtropical montane forest habitats; distribution extends from Southern China, Southeast Asia and South Asia; diurnal; oviparous (Schulz 1996; Zhao 2006; Das 2010; Schulz & Gumprecht 2013).

Variation: Gonyosoma (Coluber) floweri is a brown color morph of G. oxycephalum. The Gonyosoma floweri illustrated in CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 190 is actually Orthriophis taeniurus ridleyi (PAUWELS & GRISMER 2015). 
References
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