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Gopherus polyphemus (DAUDIN, 1802)

IUCN Red List - Gopherus polyphemus - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaTestudinidae, Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: (Florida) Gopher Tortoise
G: Florida Gopherschildkröte 
SynonymTestudo polyphemus DAUDIN 1802: 256
Testudo depressa GUÉRIN-MÉNEVILLE 1829
Testudo Polyphemus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 104
Testudo gopher GRAY 1844
Testudo Polyphemus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 220
Gopherus polyphemus — STEJNEGER 1893
Gopherus polyphemus polyphemus, MERTENS & WERMUTH 1955
Gopherus polyphemus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 74
Gopherus polyphemus — CROTHER 2000
Gopherus polyphemus — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2004
Gopherus polyphemus — TTWG 2014 
DistributionUSA (along the Atlantic Coastal Plain in S South Carolina, Georgia, S Alabama, Florida, E Louisiana, Mississippi)

Type locality: vicinity of Savannah, Georgia (restricted by K.P. SCHMIDT 1953)  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: unlocated (Iverson 1992: 261) 
CommentGopherus agassizii and G. berlandieri have been considered as subspecies of G. polyphemus previously. See map in Winchell (2006).

Type species: Testudo polyphemus DAUDIN 1802: 256 is the type species of the genus Gopherus RAFINESQUE 1832: 64. 
References
  • Allen, E. Ross; Neill, Wilfred T. 1953. Juveniles of the tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus. Copeia 1953 (2): 128 - get paper here
  • Allen, Morrow J. 1932. A survey of the Amphibians and reptiles of Harrison County, Mississippi. American Museum Novitates (542): 1-20 - get paper here
  • Ashton Ray E. & Patrica Ashton 2008. THE NATURAL HISTORY AND MANAGEMENT OF THE GOPHER TORTOISE (GOPHERUS POLYPHEMUS DAUDIN). Krieger Publishing Company, 288 pp.
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  • Ashton, Ray E, Jr., and Amanda Ebenhack. 2008. Gopherus polyphemus (Gopher Tortoise). Record Size. Herpetological Review 39 (2):214 - get paper here
  • Auffenberg W; Franz R 1978. Gopherus polyphemus (Daudin). Gopher totoise. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 215: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Auffenberg, W., & Franz, R. 1978. Gopherus Rafinesque: gopher tortoises. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (211): 1-2 [species accounts in nos. 212-215] - get paper here
  • Bogert, Charles M. (Charles Mitchill); Cowles, Raymond B. (Raymond Bridgman) 1947. Moisture loss in relation to habitat selection in some Floridian reptiles. American Museum novitates (1358) - get paper here
  • Böhme, W. 2005. Der “Savannah River Ecology Site” und seine herpetologischen Highlights. Herpetofauna 25 (142): 13-21 - get paper here
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  • Castellón, Traci D.; Betsie B. Rothermel, and Saif Z. Nomani 2012. Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) Burrow Densities in Scrub and Flatwoods Habitats of Peninsular Florida. Chelonian Conservation and Biology Dec 2012, Vol. 11, No. 2: 153-161. - get paper here
  • Catano, Christopher P.; James J. Angelo, and I. Jack Stout 2014. Sample Grain Influences the Functional Relationship Between Canopy Cover and Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) Burrow Abandonment. Chelonian Conservation and Biology Dec 2014, Vol. 13, No. 2: 166-172. - get paper here
  • Cherry, Michael J., Paige Howell, Robert J. Warren and Mike Conner. 2015. Gopherus polyphemus (gopher tortoise) coyotes denning in gopher tortois burrow. Herpetological Review 46 (4): 618
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  • DeGregorio, Brett A.; Kurt A. Buhlmann, and Tracey D. Tuberville 2012. Overwintering of Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) Translocated to the Northern Limit of Their Geographic Range: Temperatures, Timing, and Survival. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 11 (1): 84-90. - get paper here
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  • Diemer-Berish, Joan E.; Richard A. Kiltie, and Travis M. Thomas 2012. Long-Term Population Dynamics of Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) in a Pine Plantation in Northern Florida. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 11 (1): 50-58. - get paper here
  • Dodd Jr. , C. Kenneth 2017. Island paradise or island trap: The uncertain future of Florida’s turtle island. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 24 (2): 83–94 - get paper here
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  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Dziadzio, Michelina C. and Lora L. Smith. 2015. Gopherus polyphemus (gopher tortoise) nest and burrow defense. Herpetological Review 46 (1): 80-81
  • Dziadzio, Michelina C.; Richard B. Chandler, Lora L. Smith, and Steven B. Castleberry 2016. Impacts of Red Imported Fire Ants (Solenopsis invicta) on Nestling and Hatchling Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) in Southwest Georgia, USA. Herp. Cons. Biol. 11 (3): - get paper here
  • Ennen, Joshua R., Brian r. Kreiser and Carl P. Qualls. 2010. Low genetic diversity in several gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) populations in the DeSoto National Forest, Mississippi. Herpetologica 66 (1): 31-38 - get paper here
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  • Goessling, Jeffrey M.; Katherine Rebois, James C. Godwin, Roger Birkhead, Christopher M. Murray, and Sharon M. Hermann 2017. Differences in Fluctuating Asymmetry Among Four Populations of Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) Herpetological Conservation and Biology 12 (2) - get paper here
  • Graham, Sean P., David A. Steen and David J. Printiss. 2015. Gopherus polyphemus (gopher tortoise) burrow associate. Herpetological Review 46 (2): 244
  • Grosse, Andrew M.; Kurt A. Buhlmann, Bess B. Harris, Brett A. DeGregorio, Brett M. Moule, Robert V. Horan, and Tracey D. Tuberville 2012. Nest Guarding in the Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus). Chelonian Conservation and Biology 11 (1): 148-151. - get paper here
  • Guyer, Craig; Valerie M. Johnson, and Sharon M. Hermann 2012. Effects of Population Density On Patterns of Movement and Behavior of Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). Herpetological Monographs 26 (1): 122-134. - get paper here
  • Halstead, Brian J., Earl D. McCoy, Terri A. Stilson and Henry R. Mushinsky 2007. Alternative foraging tactics of juvenile gopher tortoises, Gopherus polyphemus, examined using correlated random walk models. Herpetologica 63 (4): 472-781 - get paper here
  • Herman, J. E. and M. Gocek-Short 2017. Gopherus polyphemus (Gopher Tortoise) Behavior. Herpetological Review 48 (2): 425-426
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  • Jones, Michael T., Lisabeth L. Willey and Noah D. Charney. 2011. Geographic Distribution: Gopherus polyphemus (gopher tortoise). Herpetological Review 42 (3): 388 - get paper here
  • Lamb, Trip;Avise, John C.;Gibbons, J. Whitfield 1989. Phylogeographic patterns in mitochondrial DNA of the desert tortoise (Xerobates agassizi), and evolutionary relationships among the North American gopher tortoises. Evolution 43 (1): 76-87 - get paper here
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  • Mushinsky, H.R. & McCoy, E.D. 2006. Gopherus polyphemus - The Gopher tortoise. Reptilia (GB) (49): 16-21 - get paper here
  • Mushinsky, H.R. & McCoy, E.D. 2006. Die Gopherschildkröte (Gopherus polyphemus). Reptilia (Münster) 11 (62): 35-40 - get paper here
  • Mushinsky, H.R.; Stilson, T.A. & McCoy, E.D. 2003. Diet and dietary preference of the juvenile Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus). Herpetologica 59 (4): 475-483 - get paper here
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  • Osentoski, M.F.;Lamb, T. 1995. Intraspecific phylogeography of the gopher tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus: RFLP analysis of amplified mtDNA segments. Molecular Ecology 4 (6): 709-718
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  • Richter, Stephen C.; Jeffrey A. Jackson, Matthew Hinderliter, Deborah Epperson, Christopher W. Theodorakis, and S. Marshall Adams 2011. Conservation Genetics of the Largest Cluster of Federally Threatened Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) Colonies with Implications for Species Management. Herpetologica Dec 2011, Vol. 67, No. 4: 406-419. - get paper here
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