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Grayia smithii (LEACH, 1818)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Grayiinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesSmith's African Water Snake 
SynonymColuber smythii LEACH 1818: 409
Grayia triangularis BOCAGE 1866: 47
Graya [sic] silurophaga — ROCHEBRUNE 1884 (fide PAUWELS & MEIRTE 1996)
Grayia silurophaga — DOLLO 1887
Grayia triangularis — GÜNTHER 1888
Grayia smythii — GÜNTHER 1895: 525
Grayia smythii — SCHMIDT 1923: 94
Grayia smythii — LOVERIDGE 1955
Grayia smythii — PITMAN 1974
Grayia smithi — GRUSCHWITZ et al. 1991 (fide ZR)
Grayia smithii — MEIRTE 1992: 113
Grayia smithii — TRAPE & ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995: 40
Grayia smythii — RÖDEL et al. 1999
Grayia smythi — RÖDEL & MAHSBERG 2000
Grayia smythii — SPAWLS et al. 2001
Grayia smithii — BRANCH & RÖDEL 2003
Grayia smithi — TRAPE & MANE 2004
Grayia smithi — TRAPE & BALDÉ 2014
Grayia smythii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 316 
DistributionS Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Congo (Brazzaville), Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Guinea (Conakry), Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Central African Republic, probably S Mali (Joger & Lambert 1996), Niger

Type locality: Embomma = Boma, Zaire. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesType: BMNH 1946.1.1.67 (and possibly additional specimens). 
CommentNot in Gabon fide PAUWELS & VANDE WEGHE 2008.

Type species: Coluber smythii LEACH 1818: 409 is the type species of the genus Grayia GÜNTHER 1858. 
EtymologyNamed after Norwegian botanist Christen Smith (1785-1816); hence the name “smythii” is inappropriate (but see Laurent 1956 and Meirte 1992). 
References
  • Barnett, Linda K. & Emms, Craig 2005. Common reptiles of The Gambia. Rare Repro, Hailsham, East Sussex, 24 pp.
  • Bocage,J.V. du B. 1866. Lista dos reptis das possessões portuguezas d'Africa occidental que existem no Museu Lisboa. Jorn. Sci. Math. Phys. Nat. Lisboa 1: 37-56
  • Böhme, Wolfgang, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Christian Brede & Philipp Wagner 2011. The reptiles (Testudines, Squamata, Crocodylia) of the forested southeast of the Republic Guinea (Guinée forestière), with a country-wide checklist. Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 35-61 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1897. A list of reptiles and batrachians from the Congo Free State, with the description of two new snakes. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 19: 276-281 - get paper here
  • Branch, W.R. & Rödel, M.-O. 2003. Herpetological survey of the Haute Dodo and Cavally forests, western ivory Coast, Part II: Trapping, results and reptiles. Salamandra 39 (1): 21-38 - get paper here
  • Broadley, D. G. & HOWELL, K. M. 1991. A check list of the reptiles of Tanzania, with synoptic keys. Syntarsus 1: 1—70
  • Chifundera, K. 1990. Snakes of Zaire and their bites. Afr. Stud. Monogr. (Kyoto) 10(3): 137-157.
  • Chirio, L. 2009. Inventaire des reptiles de la région de la Réserve de Biosphère Transfrontalière du W (Niger/Bénin/Burkina Faso: Afrique de l’Ouest). [Herpetological survey of the W Transfrontier Biosphere Reserve area (Niger/Benin/Burkina Faso: West Africa]. Bull. Soc. Herp. France (132): 13-41 - get paper here
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Dollo, M.L. 1887. Note on the reptiles and batrachians collected by Captain Em. Storms in the Tanganyika region. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 19: 167-168 - get paper here
  • Gruschwitz, M; Lenz, S; Bohme, W 1991. Zur Kenntnis der Herpetofauna von Gambia (Westafrika) Teil 2: Schlangen (Reptilia, Serpentes) herpetofaunistische Bewertung. Herpetofauna 13 (75): 27-34 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1858. Catalogue of Colubrine snakes of the British Museum. London, I - XVI, 1 - 281
  • Günther, A. 1895. Notice of Reptiles and Batrachians collected in the eastern half of tropical Africa. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 15: 523-529. - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1888. Contribution to the knowledge of snakes of tropical Africa. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 1: 322-335 - get paper here
  • Hughes, B. 2013. Snakes of Bénin, West Africa. Bull. Soc. Herp. France 144: 101-159
  • Jackson, K. & Blackburn, D.C. 2007. The amphibians and reptiles of Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, Republic of Congo (Brazzaville). Salamandra 43 (3): 149-164 - get paper here
  • Jackson, Kate 2008. MEAN AND LOWLY THINGS - Snakes, Science, and Survival in the Congo. Harvard University Press, 336 pp.
  • Jackson, Kate; Ange-Ghislain Zassi-Boulou, Lis-Bethy Mavoungou, and Serge Pangou 2007. Amphibians and Reptiles of the LacTélé Community Reserve, Likouala Region, Republic of Congo (Brazzaville). Herp. Cons. Biol. 2 (2): 75-86 - get paper here
  • JACOBSEN, N.H.G. 2009. A contribution to the herpetofauna of the Passendro Area, Central African Republic. African Herp News (47): 2-20
  • Laurent,R.F. 1956. Contribution à l'herpetologie de la région des Grandes Lacs de l'Afrique centrale. Ann. Mus. Roy. Congo Belge (Sci. Zool.), 48: 1-390
  • Leach, W.E. 1818. in Tuckey, Narrative of an expedition to explore the river Zaire, usually called the Congo, in South Africa, in 1816. London, J. Murray, 498 pp. - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1956. On snakes collected in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan by J.S. Owen, Esq. Sudan Notes Rec. 36: 37-56 [1955]
  • Meirte, D. 1992. Clés de détermination des serpents d'Afrique. Museum Royal d'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren Belgique Annual Series Octavo Science Zoologique 267:1-152
  • Menzies, J.I. 1966. The snakes of Sierra Leone. Copeia 1966 (2): 169-179. - get paper here
  • Monasterio, Camila 2016. The herpetofauna of the Dindefelo Natural Community Reserve, Senegal. Herpetology Notes 9: 1-6 - get paper here
  • Pauwels,O.S.G.; Lenlet, G.; Trape, J.-F. & Dubois, A. 2000. Grayia smithii (Leach 1818), Smith’s African Wate Snake. Diet. African Herp News (31): 7-8 - get paper here
  • Pauwels,Ol. & Meirte,D. 1996. Contribution to the knowledge of the Gambian herpetofauna. British Herpetological Society Bulletin (56): 27-34 - get paper here
  • Pitman,C.R.S. 1974. A guide to the snakes of Uganda. Codicote, Wheldon & Wesley, L., 290 pp.
  • Rochebrune, A. T. de 1884. Faune de la Senegambie. Reptiles. O. Dom, Paris, 1-221. - get paper here
  • Rödel M O; Mahsberg D 2000. Vorläufige Liste der Schlangen des Tai-Nationalparks/Elfenbeinküste und angrenzender Gebiete. Salamandra 36 (1): 25-38 - get paper here
  • Rödel,M.O.; Kouadio,K, & Mahsberg,D. 1999. Die Schlangenfauna des Comoé-Nationalparks, Elfenbeinküste: Ergänzungen und Ausblick. Salamandra 35 (3): 165-180 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P. 1923. Contributions to the herpetology of the Belgian Congo based on the collection of the American Museum Congo Expedition, 1909-1915. Part II. Snakes, with field notes by Herbert Lang and James P. Chapin. Bull. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist. 49 (1): 1-146
  • Segniagbeto GLazcano. H., Trape J. F., David P., Ohler A., Dubois A. & Glitho I. A. 2011. The snake fauna of Togo: systematics, distribution and biogeography, with remarks on selected taxonomic problems. Zoosystema 33 (3): 325-360. DOI: 10.5252/z2011n3a4 - get paper here
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Trape J-F and Mané Y. 2015. The snakes of Niger. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 9(2) [Special Section]: 39–55 (e110) - get paper here
  • Trape, J.-F. & Mané, Y. 2004. Les serpents des environs de Bandafassi (Sénégal oriental). Bull. Soc. Herp. France 109: 5-34 - get paper here
  • Trape, J.-F. & Mané, Y. 2006. Guide des serpents d’Afrique occidentale. Savane et désert. [Senegal, Gambia, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger]. IRD Editions, Paris, 226 pp. - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F. & R. ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995. Les serpents du Congo: liste commentée et clé de détermination. Journal of African Zoology 109 (1): 31-50
  • TRAPE, JEAN-FRANÇOIS & CELLOU BALDÉ 2014. A checklist of the snake fauna of Guinea, with taxonomic changes in the genera Philothamnus and Dipsadoboa (Colubridae) and a comparison with the snake fauna of some other West African countries. Zootaxa 3900 (3): 301–338
  • Ullenbruch, K.; Grell, O.; Böhme, W. 2010. Reptiles from southern Benin, West Africa, with the description of a new Hemidactylus (Gekkonidae), and a country-wide checklist. Bonn Zool. Bull. 57 (1): 31-54 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1899. Ueber Reptilien und Batrachier aus Togoland, Kamerun und Deutsch-Neu-Guinea grösstentheils aus dem k. Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 49: 132-157 - get paper here
  • Witte, G. F. de 1933. Reptiles récoltés au Conge Belge par le Dr. H. Schouteden et par M. G.-F. Witte. Ann. Mus. Conge belge Zool. Ser. 1 Tome III: 53-100.
 
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