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Helicops leopardinus (SCHLEGEL, 1837)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesLeopard Keelback 
SynonymHomalopsis leopardina SCHLEGEL 1837: 358
Helicops Leprieurii DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 750
Helicops Leprieurii — GÜNTHER 1861: 427
Helicops leopardinus - JAN 1865
Helicops leopardinus — BOULENGER 1893: 278
Helicops leopardinus — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Helicops leopardinus - CEI 1993
Helicops leopardinus — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 18
Helicops leopardinus — KAWASHITA-RIBEIRO et al. 2013
Helicops leopardinus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 322 
DistributionGuiana, Surinam, French Guiana, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Amapá, Bahia, S Ceará, Mato Grosso etc.), Bolivia, Paraguay,
N Argentina (Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Misiones, Chaco, Formosa, Jujuy, Salta)
Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)], Ecuador [Cisneros-Heredia 2006], Peru.

Type locality: unknown (fide STARACE 1998) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous (Braz et al. 2016) 
TypesSyntypes: RMNH, 600 and 480 mm specimens (de Fremery). 
CommentThe occurrence of Helicops leopardinus in Colombia has been questioned (Pérez-Santos & Moreno, cited in Cadle, Herpetologica 48 (1): 137) 
References
  • Almendariz, A. 1991. Anfibios y Reptiles [del Ecuador]. Rev. Politecnica. XVI (3): 89-162.
  • Baía, Raimundo R. Jesus, Carlos E. Costa-Campos, Yuri B. Silva E. Silva, Mayara F. Melo Furtado and Jéssica Canela Vaz. 2015. Helicops leopardinus (watersnake) diet. Herpetological Review 46 (2): 274
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Braz, Henrique B.; Rodrigo R. Scartozzoni, Selma M. Almeida-Santos 2016. Reproductive modes of the South American water snakes: A study system for the evolution of viviparity in squamate reptiles Zoologischer Anzeiger 263: 33-44; doi:10.1016/j.jcz.2016.04.003 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Campos Nogueira, C. de 2001. New records of Squamate Reptiles in Central Brazilian Cerrado II: Brasília Region. Herpetological Review 32 (4): 285-287 - get paper here
  • Cano, Paula Daniela; Héctor Alejandro Ball, Matías Federico Carpinetto, Germán Darío Peña 2015. Reptile checklist of Río Pilcomayo National Park, Formosa, Argentina. Check List 11 (3): 1658 - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Cisneros-Heredia, D.F. 2006. Reptilia, Colubridae, Helicops angulatus and Helicops leopardinus: Distribution extension, new country record. Check List 2 (1): 36-37 - get paper here
  • Claessen, H. 2003. De slangen van de Guyanas Deel VI. Lacerta 61 (5): 177-187 - get paper here
  • Costa, Henrique C.; Diego J. Santana, Fernando Leal, Ricardo Koroiva, and Paulo C.A. Garcia 2016. A New Species of Helicops (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Hydropsini) from Southeastern Brazil. Herpetologica Jun 2016, Vol. 72, No. 2: 157-166
  • Costa-Campos, Carlos E., Yuri B. Silva E. Silva, Raimundo R. Jesus Baía, Junior Pamphilio Hélio R. M., Pedro G. Nery Sampaio and Huann Gentil Vasconcelos. 2015. Helicops leopardinus (watersnake) diet. Herpetological Review 46 (2): 274
  • da Frota, J.G. 2005. Nova espécie de Helicops Wagler, 1830 (Serpentes, Colubridae) do rio Tapajós, Amazonia, Brasil. Phyllomedusa 4 (1): 61-68 - get paper here
  • Dirksen, L. 2003. Marajó - heiss-feuchtes Amazonas-Paradies. Reptilia (Münster) 8 (40): 75-81 - get paper here
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Daniel O. Mesquita, Cristiano C. Nogueira, and <br />Alexandre F. B. Araújo 2008. Phylogeny and Ecology Determine Morphological Structure in a Snake Assemblage in the Central Brazilian Cerrado. Copeia 2008 (1): 23-38 - get paper here
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Mesquita, Daniel Oliveira and Guarino Rinaldi Colli 2006. A CHECKLIST OF SNAKES FROM AMAZONIAN SAVANNAS IN BRAZIL, HOUSED IN THE COLEÇÃO HERPETOLÓGICA DA UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA, WITH NEW DISTRIBUTION RECORDS. Occ. Pap. Oklahoma Mus. Nat. Hist., Univ. Oklahoma 17: 1-13
  • Freiberg, M.A. 1982. Snakes of South America. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 189 pp.
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de 2014. Squamate reptiles of the Atlantic Forest of northern Bahia, Brazil. Check List 10 (5): 1020-1030 - get paper here
  • Frota, J.G. da; Pedroso dos Santos-Jr, Alfredo; Menezes-Chalkidis, H. de & Guimarães Guedes, A. 2005. AS SERPENTES DA REGIÃO DO BAIXO RIO AMAZONAS, OESTE DO ESTADO DO PARÁ, BRASIL (SQUAMATA). Biociências 13 (2): 211-220
  • Gasc & Rodrigues 1980. Liste preliminaire des Serpents de la Guyane francaise. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (4): 559-598
  • Günther, A. 1861. On the ophidian genus Helicops. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 7: 425-428 - get paper here
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Kawashita-Ribeiro, Ricardo Alexandre; Robson Waldemar Ávila, and Drausio Honorio Morais 2013. A New Snake of the Genus Helicops Wagler, 1830 (Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae) from Brazil. Herpetologica 69 (1): 80-90. - get paper here
  • Lambertz, M. 2010. Kommentierte Liste der squamaten Reptilien des Sanddünengebietes am mittleren Rio São Francisco (Bahia, Brasilien) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung endemischer Faunenelemente. Ophidia 4 (2): 2-17 - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Leynaud, Gerardo C. and Enrique H. Bucher 1999. La fauna de serpientes del Chaco Sudamericano: diversidad, distribución geografica y estado de conservación. Academia Nacional de Ciencias Miscelanea (98):1-46
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Ribeiro, S. C., I. J. Roberto, D. L. Sales, R. W. Ávila & W. O. Almeida 2012. Amphibians and reptiles from the Araripe bioregion, northeastern Brazil. Salamandra 48 (3): 133-146 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, M.T. 2003. Herpetofauna da Caatinga. In: I.R. Leal, M. Tabarelli & J.M.C. Silva (eds.). Ecologia e conservação da Caatinga, pp. 181-236. Editora Universitária, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil.
  • Schlegel, H. 1837. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Partie Descriptive. La Haye (J. Kips, J. HZ. et W. P. van Stockum), 606 S. + xvi - get paper here
  • Silva, M.C. da, R.H. de Oliveira, D.H. Morais, R.A. Kawashita-Ribeiro, E.S. de Brito & R.W. Ávila 2015. Amphibians and reptiles of a Cerrado area in Primavera do Leste Municipality, Mato Grosso State, Central Brazil. Salamandra 51 (2): 187-194 - get paper here
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini ,P.E. RAMOS-COSTA,A.M. & VITT,L.J. 1980. Repteis das Caatingas. Acad. Bras. Ciencias, Rio de janeiro, 161 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Williams,J.D. & Francini,F. 1991. A checklist of the Argentine snakes. Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 9 (1): 55-90
  • Zaracho, Víctor Hugo; Ingaramo, María del Rosario; Semhan, Romina Valeria; Etchepare, Eduardo; Acosta, José Luis; Falcione, Ana Camila; Álvarez, Blanca 2014. Herpetofauna de la Reserva Natural Provincial Isla Apipé Grande (Corrientes, Argentina) Cuad. herpetol. 28 (2): 153-160 - get paper here
 
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