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Hemidactylus bayonii BOCAGE, 1893

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Common NamesE: Barboza's Leaf-toed Gecko 
SynonymHemidactylus bayonii BOCAGE 1893: 116
Hemidactylus bayonii — FRADE 1963
Hemidactylus bayoni — LAURENT 1964: 30
Hemidactylus bayonii — WERMUTH 1965: 70
Hemidactylus bayonii — KLUGE 1993
Hemidactylus bayonii — RÖSLER 2000: 85
Hemidactylus bayonii — RÖSLER 2015
Hemidactylus bayonii — CERIACO et al. 2020: 20 
DistributionAngola (Luanda, Bengo, Kwanza Sul, Benguela, Namibe)

Type locality: Dondo near Bayão, Quanza River, Angola. Neotype locality: Kawa Camp, Kissama National Park (-9.18303°, 13.37063°, 136 m), Luanda Province, Republic of Angola  
TypesNeotype. CAS 263354 (field number AMB 10095; Fig. 4; Table 4 in Ceriaco et al. 2020), adult male, collected by Luis M.P. Ceríaco, David C. Blackburn and Aaron M. Bauer on 15 December 2015. The original holotype is lost, was MB (Museu Bocage) (probably lost in fire 1978) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A small sized Hemidactylus, maximum snout-vent length 36.2 mm (Fig. 3). Dorsal pholidosis heterogeneous, with 14–16 irregularly arranged longitudinal rows of subtrihedral, striated, keeled tubercles at midbody. Two well-developed pairs of postmentals, the inner pair longer than the outer pair, but about the same size as the mental, usually in contact behind mental, but sometimes with an additional enlarged postmental scale separating the two main postmentals. ventrolateral folds distinct, about 28–32 scale rows across venter. Five to six divided scansors beneath first digit manus, four to seven to that of pes, seven to eight beneath fourth digit of manus, eigth to ten beneath the fourth digit of pes. Six to nine continuous precloacal pores in males. Original tail slightly cyclo-tetragonal, strongly spinose; scales on the tail dorsum slightly larger than dorsals of body, striated, imbricate, with a longitudinal series of two enlarged, strongly keeled, striated, pointed tubercles on either side of the median dorsal furrow. Subcaudal scales small, about one fourth of the tail width. Body dorsum with a series of dark marking dorsolaterally, and cream-colored stripe extending from snout to behind the eyes; tail with distinct alternating light and dark bands. Note that the number of dorsal tubercle rows we report is not consistent with the original description of this species because it is not possible to determine the point at which Bocage began counting these rows.

Comparison with West and Central African congeners. Hemidactylus bayonii is readily distinguished from H. kamdemtohami and H. richardsonii by the lack of basal digital webbing; it is distinguished from H. matschiei by having spiny tubercles on the dorsum and tail and small subcaudal scales. It is distinguished from H. steindachneri (see Remarks under Hemidactylus longicephalus) by the absence of a longitudinal row of keeled tubercles on the ventrolateral border of flanks; from H. echinus by lacking both a paired row of tubercles on the ventral surface of the tail and a double row of enlarged spines on the lateral side of the tail; from H. ansorgii by having a more robust body (versus largely dorsoventraly flattened/slender) and by having enlarged keeled tubercles on body and tail (versus tubercles relatively indistinct). It differs from H. pseudomuriceus by having small subcaudal scales (versus large, hexagonal midventral subcaudals); from H. muriceus by having a higher number of dorsal tubercle rows (15–16 versus 7–12); and from H. hecqui in its smaller size (maximum SvL 36.2 mm versus 50 mm for the unique holotype of H. hecqui).
With respect to Angolan congeners, H. bayonii differs from H. longicephalus in its lower number of dorsal tubercle rows (14–16 versus 16–18) and by its much smaller maximum size (maximum SvL 36.2 versus 54.8 mm); from H. benguellensis by its lower number of precloacal pores (6–9 versus 23–33); and from H. mabouia by having small subcaudal scales and a lower number of precloacal pores (6–9 versus 28–39). See new species accounts for comparisons with these taxa. 
CommentSimilar species: H. longicephalus. The Hemidactylus specimens of the vernay Angola Expedition remained misidentified as Hemidactylus longicephalus until Ceriaco et al. 2020. Loveridge (1947) considered H. bayonii as juvenile Hemidactylus brookii angulatus

Habitat: The species was only found on the ground, mostly on sandy soils with leaf litter cover. Specimens were located under cover by day and moving on the ground just before, but especially after dusk. The habitat in Kissama National Park, where the neotype was collected, is a typical western Angolan savan- nah, with sandy soils dominated by Adansonia digitata, Euphorbia conspicua, Acacia welwitschi and Combretum spp., together with a good grass coverage.

Sympatry: sympatrically with Hemidactylus mabouia and H. longicephalus, although these were never found on the ground. 
EtymologyNamed after Francisco Antonio Pinheiro Bayão, a Portuguese planter and administrator whose family had settled in Angola in the 17th century where he also collected many specimens. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bocage, J.V.B. du 1893. Diagnoses de quelques nouvelles especes de reptiles et batraciens d‘Angola. J. Sci. math.-phys. nat., Lisboa, 3 (2): 115-121
  • CERÍACO, LUIS M. P.; ISHAN AGARWAL, MARIANA P. MARQUES, AARON M. BAUER 2020. A review of the genus Hemidactylus Goldfuss, 1820 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Angola, with the description of two new species. Zootaxa 4746 (1): 1-71. - get paper here
  • Laurent, R.F. 1964. Reptiles et batraciens de l'Angola (troisième contribution). Companhia de Di amantes de Angola (Diamang), Serviços Culturais, Museu do Dundo (Angola), No. 67, 165 pp.
  • Marques, Mariana P.; Luis M. P. Ceríaco , David C. Blackburn , and Aaron M. Bauer 2018. Diversity and Distribution of the Amphibians and Terrestrial Reptiles of Angola -- Atlas of Historical and Bibliographic Records (1840–2017). Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 4) 65: 1-501 (Supplement II)
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa (Reptilia: Gekkonomorpha). Gekkota 2: 28-153
  • Rösler, Herbert 2015. Bemerkungen über einige Geckos der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München. Gekkota, Suppl. (2): 3-54
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