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Hemiphyllodactylus titiwangsaensis ZUG, 2010

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Titiwangsa slender gecko 
SynonymHemiphyllodactylus titiwangsaensis ZUG 2010: 48
Hemiphyllodactylus titiwangsaensis — GRISMER 2011
Hemiphyllodactylus titwangsaensis — GRISMER & QUAH 2019 (in error) 
DistributionW Malaysia (Pahang Province)

Type locality: Malaysia, Pahang Province, Cameron Highlands, Gunong Brinchang (= Berincang) summit area.  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: ZRC 2.4782, adult male, collected by H. H. Tan and others, 25 June 2000. Paratypes: ZFMK, ZRC 
DiagnosisDescription. Bisexual taxon of geckos (Gekkoninae) with robust habitus, slightly compressed trunk and moderately large head (see Figures 3, 11, 24), tail round to elliptical in cross section and somewhat shorter than SVL. Adults not dimorphic: 36.5–62.1 mm (mean ± SD, 49.2 mm ± 6.34; n = 15) SVL; 18.1–32.5 mm (23.3 mm ± 3.69) TrunkL; 8.9–13.8 mm (12.0 mm ± 1.18) HeadL; 6.1–10.2 mm (8.2 mm ± 0.98) HeadW; 3.4–5.8 mm (4.9 mm ± 0.60) SnEye; 2.6–4.4 mm (3.6 mm ± 0.42) NarEye; 2.4–3.6 mm (3.0 mm ± 0.31) EyeD; 1.4–2.6 mm (2.0 mm ± 0.32) SnW. Adult proportions: 42–50% TrunkL/SVL (mean ± SD, 46.4% ± 3.4), 23–27% HeadL/ SVL (24.6% ± 1.4), 16–19% HeadW/SVL (16.9% ± 1.0), 64–73% HeadW/HeadL (68.5% ± 3.5), 37–43% SnEye/ HeadL (40.7% ± 2.1), 26–32% NarEye/HeadL (29.4% ± 2.1), 21–30% EyeD/HeadL (25.6% ± 2.5), 14–21% SnW/ HeadL (16.5% ± 2.5), 68–94% EyeD/NarEye (85.4% ± 9.6), 21–31% SnW/HeadW (23.8% ± 3.2%). (Zug 2010)

Scalation is predominantly granular from head onto tail, both dorsally and ventrally; ventral trunk scales slightly larger than dorsal caudal scales, 14–19 Dorsal (median ± SD, 16 ± 1.9) and 7–9 Ventral (7 ± 1.0); similarly, subcaudal scales slightly larger than dorsal ones but not plate-like. Cloacal spurs present, modest sized, 1–4 CloacS (3 ± 1.0). Larger scales on lips and snout, rostral largest, rectangular to pentagonal, often slightly concave on dorsomedial edge with slight cleft; 3 CircNa (3 ± 0.0), 1–3 SnS (3 ± 0.8); labial scales enlarged from rostral to below eye, becoming progressively smaller in subocular rictus, 9–11 Suplab (10 ± 0.7), 8–10 Inflab (9 ± 0.7); 8–9 Chin (9 ± 0.5), those behind mental distinctly enlarged; ear opening distinct with no bordering enlarged scales. Each digit with expanded pad, terminal two phalanges free, arising from within pad on second to fifth digits of foreand hindfoot and each clawed; pads of these digits each with large triangular apical lamella bordered proximally by lyre-shaped lamellae (scansors); modal digital formulae 3-4-4-4 (forefoot) and 4-5-5-5 (hindfoot) for scansors; first digit of fore- and hindfeet compressed, usually 5 or 7 rectangular lamellae (4–6 fore, 5–8 hind) ventrally, terminal phalanx not free with or without minute claw. Adult females never with precloacal pores; males always with continuous precloacal–femoral pore series 17–39 TotPore (median ± SD, 21 ± 7.95). (Zug 2010)

Coloration in life, dorsal and lateral ground color ranges from light grayish tan to medium brown, head to tail occasionally distinctly lighter than neck and trunk (Figure 11). This lightness is emphasized by absence or diffuseness of dark markings on head. Neck and trunk bear numerous transverse dark brown irregularly shaped bars, lighter interspaces typically narrower than dark bars. Bars extend onto sides; dorsolaterally in shoulder area bars are darker, creating an impression of dark dorsolateral stripe. Dark lateral stripe from loreal to neck, occasionally to midneck. Dark stripe bordered above by cream to beige stripe from canthus rostralis to shoulder, often continuing as series of spots or dashes on trunk and at inguina becoming narrow arm of postsacral mark; center dark spot of mark absent to small. Tail usually lighter than trunk and distinctly banded in light and dark, relative size of which very variable. (Coloration from images by H. Ota and Chan-ard et al., 1999.) (Zug 2010)

Coloration in alcohol is muted, although dark and light pattern usually persists. Ventrally from chin onto tail, uniform light cream in most individuals, brown in a few. Females seem to be more boldly patterned than males. Major diagnostic features are as follows: bisexual taxon; caecum and gonadal ducts not pigmented; precloacal–femoral pore series continuous in males (TotPore 17–39), absent in females; chin scales bordering mental and first infralabial distinctly enlarged; digital lamellae formulae usually 3-4-4-4 (forefoot) and 4-4-5-5 or 4-5-5-5 (hindfoot); average adult SVL ~49 mm; dorsal and lateral trunk pattern of dark brown irregular transverse bands, muted postsacral bar of narrow white arms onto hips. (Zug 2010)

Description of holotype: An adult male (Figure 24), 56.9 mm SVL, 48 mm TailL (regenerated), 24.1 mm TrunkL, 13.2 mm HeadL, 9.6 mm HeadW, 5.4 mm SnEye, 3.9 mm NarEye, 3.0 mm EyeD, and 2.4 mm SnW. Proportions: 42% TrunkL/SVL, 23% HeadL/SVL, 17% HeadW/ SVL, 73% HeadW/HeadL, 41% SnEye/HeadL, 28% NarEye/HeadL, 23% EyeD/HeadL, 18% SnW/HeadL, 81% EyeD/NarEye, 25% SnW/HeadW. Scalation: 3 CircNa, 3 SnS, 10 Suplab, 9 Inflab, 8 Chin (anteromedial ones enlarged), 16 Dorsal, 7 Ventral, 3 CloacS, Subcaud not enlarged, precloacal and pore series continuous, 30 TotPore, digital formulae 4-4-5-4 (forefoot) and 4-5-5-5 (hindfoot). No pigmentation on caecum or oviducts. Specimen brown dorsally and laterally with scattered indistinct dark brown markings, somewhat lighter ventrally. Postsacral mark indistinct, small median dark spot on first tail segment, anterior arms muted. In life, the ventral surface of the tails (type series) were orangish pink. (Zug 2010) 
CommentMajor diagnostic features: bisexual taxon; caecum and gonadal ducts not pigmented; pre- cloacal–femoral pore series continuous in males (TotPore 17–39), absent in females; chin scales bordering mental and first infralabial distinctly enlarged; digital lamellae formulae usually 3-4-4-4 (forefoot) and 4-4-5-5 or 4-5-5-5 (hindfoot); average adult SVL ~49 mm; dorsal and lateral trunk pattern of dark brown irregular transverse bands, muted postsacral bar of narrow white arms onto hips.

Behavior: nocturnal

Distribution: see map in Grismer et al. 2015 (Fig. 1C). 
EtymologyThese geckos occur in the south central region of the Banjaran Titiwangsa; hence the taxon is a resident (likely endemic) of Titiwangsa and so named. 
  • Böhme, Wolfgang 2014. Herpetology in Bonn. Mertensiella 21. vi + 256 pp. - get paper here
  • COBOS, ANTHONY; L. LEE GRISMER, PERRY L. WOOD, JR., EVAN S. H. QUAH, SHAHRUL ANUAR, MOHD ABDUL MUIN 2016. Phylogenetic relationships of geckos of the Hemiphyllodactylus harterti group, a new species from Penang Island, Peninsular Malaysia, and a likely case of true cryptic speciation. Zootaxa 4107 (3): 367-380 - get paper here
  • GOLDBERG, S. R., C. R. BURSEY, AND L. L. GRISMER 2020. Hemiphyllodactylus titiwangsaensis (Titiwangsa Slender Gecko). Endoparasites. Herpetological Review 51: 600.
  • Goldberg, Stephen R. and L. Lee Grismer. 2014. Hemiphyllodactylus titiwangsaensis (Titiwangsa slender gecko) reproduction. Herpetological Review 45 (3): 500 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; & EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. An updated and annotated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent archipelagos. Zootaxa 4545 (2): 230–248 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; AWAL RIYANTO, DJOKO T. ISKANDAR & JIMMY A. MCGUIRE 2014. A new species of Hemiphyllodactylus Bleeker, 1860 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Pulau Enggano, southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia. Zootaxa 3821 (4): 485–495 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Perry L. Wood Jr, Shahrul Anuar, Evan S. H. Quah, Mohd Abdul Muin, Chan Kin Onn, Alexandra X. Sumarli and Ariel I. Loredo 2015. Repeated evolution of sympatric, palaeoendemic species in closely related, co-distributed lineages of Hemiphyllodactylus Bleeker, 1860 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) across a sky-island archipelago in Peninsular Malaysia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 174 (4): 859–876; DOI: 10.1111/zoj.12254 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and their adjacent archipelagos. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 728 pp. [review in Herp. Rev. 43: 155] - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; PERRY L. WOOD Jr, SHAHRUL ANUAR, MOHD ABDUL MUIN, EVAN S. H. QUAH, JIMMY A. MCGUIRE,, RAFE M. BROWN,0, NGO VAN TRI and PHAM HONG THAI 2013. Integrative taxonomy uncovers high levels of cryptic species diversity in Hemiphyllodactylus Bleeker, 1860 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) and the description of a new species from Peninsular Malaysia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 169: 849–880 - get paper here
  • NGO VAN TRI; L. LEE GRISMER, PHAM HONG THAI & P. L. WOOD, JR. 2014. A new species of Hemiphyllodactylus Bleeker, 1860 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Ba Na–Nui Chua Nature Reserve, Central Vietnam. Zootaxa 3760 (4): 539–552 - get paper here
  • NGUYEN, TRUONG QUANG; QUYEN HANH DO, HANH THI NGO, ANH VAN PHAM,<br />CUONG THE PHAM, MINH DUC LE, & THOMAS ZIEGLER 2020. Two new species of Hemiphyllodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Hoa Binh Province, Vietnam. Zootaxa 4801 (3): 513–536 - get paper here
  • Zug, G. R. 2010. Speciation and Dispersal in a Low Diversity Taxon: The Slender Geckos Hemiphyllodactylus (Reptilia, Gekkonidae). Smithsonian contributions to zoology (631): 1-70 - get paper here
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