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Hemorrhois ravergieri (MÉNÉTRIES, 1832)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesHemorrhois ravergieri cernovi (MERTENS 1952)
Hemorrhois ravergieri ravergieri (MÉNÉTRIES 1832) 
Common NamesE: Spotted Whip Snake
G: Ravergieris Zornnatter, Bunte Zornnatter 
SynonymColuber Ravergieri MÉNÉTRIES 1832: 69
Zamenis caudaelineatus GÜNTHER 1858: 104
Zamenis ravergieri — BOULENGER 1893: 405
Eremiophis ravergieri
Zamenis fedtschenkoi STRAUCH 1873 (fide BOULENGER 1893)
Zamenis glazunowi NIKOLSKY 1896
Coluber ravergieri nummifer REUSS 1834
Zamenis ravergieri — WERNER 1905
Zamenis ravergieri — WALL 1911
Elaphe dione plumbea CHERNOV 1926
Elaphe caudaelineata [sic] — SCHMIDT 1939
Coluber ravergieri — MINTON 1966
Coluber ravergieri — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Coluber ravergieri — DAS 1996: 55
Haemorrhois caudalineata (fide BÖHME 1993: 148)
Coluber ravergieri — SZCZERBAK 2003
Hemorrhois ravergieri — NAGY et al. 2004
Coluber ravergieri — ZHAO 2006
Hemorrhois ravergieri — SCHÄTTI & MONSCH 2004
Hemorrhois ravergieri — WALLACH et al. 2014: 328 
DistributionSoviet Union (Caucasus), eastern shore of Caspian Sea east to E Kazakhstan, Armenia, Republic of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan,
Greece (Kos), Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Israel,
W Mongolia, NW China (Xinjiang)

Type locality: Baku, Azerbaijan Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: ZSI 7323 
CommentSimilar species: Very similar to C. nummifer (occuring in the estern Mediterranean region).E . quatuorlineata reported from the Island of Kos turned out to be C. ravergieri nummifer. SCHMIDT (1939) states that Elaphe caudaelineata from Persepolis are entirely distinct from specimens of ravergieri. “The dorsal scale formula is 21-21-15 instead of 23 or 25-23-17. Ventrals and caudals in the single male, 193 and 101; in three females 201-213 and 87-93. The lineate pattern of the tail is distinctive. The largest specimen, a female, measures 855, tail 195.”

Synonymy partly after KHALIKOV & ANANJEVA (pers. comm.).

Distribution: records from India are questionable (A. Captian, pers. comm. 13. Feb 2011).

Habitat. Slope canyon (west) with bushes, Prangos lipskyi, and Ferula sp.

Activity pattern. Diurnal. 
Etymologynamed ater Mr. Ravergier “attaché à l’ambassade francaise à S.-Pétersbourg”. 
References
  • Al-Quran, S. 2009. The Herpetofauna of the Southern Jordan. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 6 (4): 385-391 [this journal has a dubious record, see http://goo.gl/81SBPv]
  • Arakelyan, Marine S.; Felix D. Danielyan, Claudia Corti, Roberto Sindaco, and Alan E. Leviton 2011. The Herpetofauna of Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 154 pp. [ISBN: 978-0-916984-84-7.]
  • Boettger, O. [as O. Böttger] 1880. Die Reptilien und Amphibien von Syrien, Palaestina und Cypern. Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., Frankfurt/M., 1879-1880: 132-219 - get paper here
  • Böhme,W. 1993. Coluber ravergieri - Ravergiers Zornnatter. In: Böhme,W. (ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band 3/I., Schlangen (Serpentes) I. Aula-Verlag Wiesbaden, pp. 145-154
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Czernov, S. (Chernov) 1926. Sur la connaissance de la faune herpetologique d'Arménie et de la contrée du Nakhiczevan [in Russ. language with French summary]. Bull. Sci. l'Explor. Regional du Caucase Nord. vol. 1: 63 - 72 - get paper here
  • Disi, A M 1993. A contribution to the herpetofauna of Jordan: 5. New records of three colubrid snakes from Jordan. The Snake 25 (2): 109-113
  • Disi, A.M.; Modry, D.; Necas, P. & Rifai, L. 2001. Amphibians and reptiles of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 408 pp.
  • Dujsebayeva, T. N. (ed.) 2010. Short review of last changes in the checklist of amphibians and reptiles of Kazakhstan. [in Russian]. In: Dujsebayeva, T. N. (ed.) Herpetological Researches in Kazakhstan and adjacent countries, p. 37-52
  • Engelmann,W.E. et al. 1993. Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp.
  • Esterbauer,H. 1985. Zur Herpetofauna Südwestsyriens. Herpetofauna 7 (38): 23-34 - get paper here
  • Fathnia, B.; N. Rastegar Pouyani; H. Darvishnia; M. Rajabzadeh 2010. The snake fauna of Ilam Province, southwestern Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 6 (1) - get paper here
  • Frynta,D. et al. 1997. Results of the Czech biological expedition to Iran. Part 1. Notes on the distribution of amphibians and reptiles. Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 61: 3-17
  • Hraoui-Bloquet, S.; Sadek, R.A.; Sindaco, R. & Venchi, A. 2002. The herpetofauna of Lebanon: new data on distribution. Zoology in the Middle East 27: 35-46 - get paper here
  • Joisten, F. 2013. Amphibien und Reptilien in Nord-Afghanistan. Reptilia (Münster) 18 (103): 86-93 - get paper here
  • Lambert, M.R.K. 2002. Preliminary observations on herpetofaunal diversity in the Almaty region, Southern Kazakhstan (September 1998). Herpetological Bulletin (79): 7-13 - get paper here
  • Lotze, H. U. 1977. Eine Berichtigung: Coluber ravergieri non Elaphe quatuorlineata von der Sporadeninsel Kos (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae) Salamandra 13 (2): 117 - get paper here
  • Méhely,L. 1894. Beiträge zur Herpetologie Transkaukasiens und Armeniens (Teil 1+2). Zool. Anz. 17: 78-80, 81-86 - get paper here
  • Ménétries, E. 1832. Catalogue raisonné des objets de zoologie recueillis dans un voyage au caucase et jusqu’aux frontières actuelles de la Perse. L’Académie Impériale des Sciences, St. -Pétersbourg - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1952. Türkiye amfibi ve reptilleri hakkinda. Amphibien und Reptilien aus der Türkei. Rev. Istanbul Üniversitesi fen Fakültesi Mecmuasi, 17:41-75.
  • Minton, S. A. Jr. 1966. A contribution to the herpetology of West Pakistan. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 134: 29-184.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. 1897. Les reptiles, amphibiens et poissons recueillis (part.) Mr. N. Zaroudny dans la Perse orientale [in Russian]. Annuaire Musée Zoologique de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg 2: 306-348 - get paper here
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
  • Schätti B. & Monsch, P. 2004. Systematics and phylogenetic relationships of Whip snakes (Hierophis Fitzinger) and Zamenis andreana Werner 1917 (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubrinae). Rev. Suisse Zool. 111 (2): 239-256 - get paper here
  • Schätti, B. & A. AGASIAN 1985. Ein neues Konzept für den Coluber ravergieri-Coluber nummifer-Komplex (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae). Zool. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden, 40 (9): 109-123.
  • Schmidt,K.P. 1939. Reptiles and amphibians from Southwestern Asia. Publ. Field Mus. nat. Hist., zool. Ser., 24: 49-92 - get paper here
  • Schweiger, Mario 1991. Coluber ravergieri Menetries, 1832 - eine ungewöhnliche Zornnatter. Teil 1: Beschreibung, Verbreitung, Ökologie und Giftwirkung. Herpetofauna 13 (70): 30-34 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Alberto Venchi, Giuseppe M. Carpaneto, Marco A. Bologna 2000. The Reptiles of Anatolia: a Checklist and Zoogeographical analysis. Biogeographia, 21-2000: 441-554.
  • Strauch,A. 1873. Die Schlangen des Russischen Reichs, in systematischer und zoogeographischer Beziehung. Mém Acad. Sci. Pétersbourg (7) 11 (4): 1-288 - get paper here
  • Szczerbak, N.N. 2003. Guide to the Reptiles of the Eastern Palearctic. Krieger, Malabar, FL, 260 pp. - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. 1975. Europaische Amphibien und Reptilien. Belser Verlag, Stuttgart 212 pp.
  • Tuniyev B.S., Tuniyev S.B., Avcı A., Ilgaz Ç. 2014. Herpetological studies in Eastern and North-Eastern Turkey. Current Studies in Herpetology 14 (1/2): 44–53. Резюме - get paper here
  • Venchi, Alberto and Roberto Sindaco 2006. Annotated checklist of the reptiles of the Mediterranean countries, with keys to species identification. Part 2 -Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, XCVIII: 259-364
  • Wall, F. 1911. Remarks on a snake collection in the Quetta museum. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 20: 1033-1042 - get paper here
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