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Holcosus undulatus (WIEGMANN, 1834)

IUCN Red List - Holcosus undulatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesHolcosus undulatus amphigrammus (SMITH & LAUFE 1945)
Holcosus undulatus dextrus (SMITH & LAUFE 1946)
Holcosus undulatus gaigeae (SMITH & LAUFE 1946)
Holcosus undulatus hartwegi (SMITH 1940)
Holcosus undulatus miadis (BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1929)
Holcosus undulatus parvus (BARBOUR & NOBLE 1915)
Holcosus undulatus pulcher (HALLOWELL 1861)
Holcosus undulatus sinistra (SMITH & LAUFE 1946)
Holcosus undulatus stuarti (SMITH 1940)
Holcosus undulatus thomasi (SMITH & LAUFE 1946)
Holcosus undulatus undulatus (WIEGMANN 1834) 
Common NamesE: Rainbow Ameiva
S: Lagartija Metálica 
SynonymCnemidophorus undulatus WIEGMANN 1834: 27
Ameiva undulata — GRAY 1845: 20
Ameiva undulata — GÜNTHER 1885: 23
Ameiva undulata — BOULENGER 1885: 347
Cnemidophorus amivoides COPE 1894 (fide DUNN 1940)
Ameiva undulata — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 172
Ameiva undulata — PETERS et al. 1970
Ameiva undulata — LINER 1994
Ameiva undulata — KÖHLER 2000: 97
Ameiva undulata — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008: 40
Holcosus undulatus — HARVEY et al. 2012

Holcosus undulatus amphigrammus (SMITH & LAUFE 1945)
Ameiva undulata amphigramma SMITH & LAUFE 1945: 338
Ameiva undulata amphigramma SMITH & LAUFE 1946: 43
Ameiva undulata podarga SMITH & LAUFE 1946: 40
Ameiva undulata amphigramma — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950
Ameiva undulata podarga — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950
Ameiva undulata podarga —STUART 1963
Ameiva undulata amphigramma —STUART 1963
Holcosus undulatus amphigrammus — HARVEY et al. 2012 (by implication)
Holcosus undulatus podargus — HARVEY et al. 2012 (by implication)
Holcosus amphigrammus — MEZA-LÁZARO et al. 2015
Holcosus amphigrammus — JOHNSON et al. 2017
Holcosus amphigrammus — LEMOS-ESPINAL et al. 2017
Holcosus amphigrammus — WOOLRICH-PIÑA et al. 2018

Holcosus undulatus dextrus (SMITH & LAUFE 1946)
Ameiva undulata dextra SMITH & LAUFE 1946: 54
Ameiva undulata dextra — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950
Ameiva undulata dextra —STUART 1963
Holcosus undulatus dexter — HARVEY et al. 2012 (by implication)

Holcosus undulatus gaigeae (SMITH & LAUFE 1946)
Ameiva undulata gaigeae SMITH & LAUFE 1946: 37
Ameiva undulata gaigeae — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950
Ameiva undulata gaigeae —STUART 1963
Ameiva undulata gaigeai — KÖHLER 2000: 97
Holcosus undulatus gaigeae — HARVEY et al. 2012 (by implication)
Holcosus gaigeae — MEZA-LÁZARO et al. 2015
Holcosus gaigeae — JOHNSON et al. 2017
Holcosus gaigeae — GONZÁLEZ-SÁNCHEZ et al. 2017

Holcosus undulatus hartwegi (SMITH 1940)
Ameiva undulata hartwegi SMITH 1940
Ameiva undulata hartwegi — SMITH & LAUFE 1946: 35
Ameiva undulata hartwegi — STUART 1948
Ameiva undulata hartwegi — SMITH & LAUFE 1946
Ameiva undulata hartwegi — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950
Ameiva undulata hartwegi — NEILL & ALLEN 1959
Ameiva undulata hartwegi —STUART 1963
Holcosus undulatus hartwegi — HARVEY et al. 2012 (by implication)
Holcosus hartwegi — MEZA-LÁZARO et al. 2015
Holcosus hartwegi — JOHNSON et al. 2015
Holcosus hartwegi — GONZÁLEZ-SÁNCHEZ et al. 2017

Holcosus undulatus miadis (BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1929)
Ameiva festiva miadis BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1929: 141
Ameiva undulata miadis — DUNN 1940: 119
Ameiva undulata miadis — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950
Ameiva undulata miadis —STUART 1963
Ameiva undulata miadis — ECHTERNACHT 1970
Holcosus undulatus miadis — HARVEY et al. 2012 (by implication)

Holcosus undulatus parvus (BARBOUR & NOBLE 1915)
Ameiva undulata parva BARBOUR & NOBLE 1915: 476
Ameiva undulata parva — SMITH & LAUFE 1946: 51
Ameiva undulata parva — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950
Ameiva undulata parva —STUART 1963
Ameiva undulata parva — MERTENS 1952: 54
Ameiva undulata parva — TAYLOR 1956: 268
Holcosus undulatus parvus — HARVEY et al. 2012 (by implication)
Holcosus parvus — MEZA-LÁZARO et al. 2015
Holcosus parvus — JOHNSON et al. 2015

Holcosus undulatus pulcher (HALLOWELL 1861)
Ameiva pulchra HALLOWELL 1861
Holcosus undulatus pulcher — HARVEY et al. 2012 (by implication)
Holcosus pulcher — MEZA-LÁZARO et al. 2015

Holcosus undulatus sinister (SMITH & LAUFE 1946)
Ameiva undulata sinistra SMITH & LAUFE 1946: 59
Ameiva undulata sinistra — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950
Ameiva undulata sinistra — ZWEIFEL 1959
Ameiva undulata sinistra —STUART 1963
Holcosus undulatus sinister — HARVEY et al. 2012 (by implication)
Holcosus sinister — MEZA-LÁZARO et al. 2015
Holcosus sinister — JOHNSON et al. 2017
Holcosus sinister — CRUZ-SAENZ et al. 2017
Holcosus sinister — LUJA et al. 2017
Holcosus sinister — WOOLRICH-PIÑA et al. 2018

Holcosus undulatus stuarti (SMITH 1940)
Ameiva undulata stuarti SMITH 1940: 55
Ameiva undulata stuarti — SMITH & LAUFE 1946: 50
Ameiva undulata stuarti — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950
Ameiva undulata stuarti —STUART 1963
Holcosus undulatus stuarti — HARVEY et al. 2012 (by implication)
Holcosus stuarti — MEZA-LÁZARO et al. 2015
Holcosus stuarti — JOHNSON et al. 2015
Holcosus stuarti — JOHNSON et al. 2017
Holcosus stuarti — GONZÁLEZ-SÁNCHEZ et al. 2017

Holcosus undulatus thomasi (SMITH & LAUFE 1946)
Ameiva undulata thomasi SMITH & LAUFE 1946: 47
Ameiva undulata thomasi — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950
Ameiva undulata thomasi —STUART 1963
Holcosus undulatus thomasi — HARVEY et al. 2012 (by implication)
Holcosus thomasi — MEZA-LÁZARO et al. 2015
Holcosus thomasi — JOHNSON et al. 2015

Holcosus undulatus undulatus (WIEGMANN 1834)
Cnemidophorus undulatus WIEGMANN 1834: 27
Ameiva undulata undulata — SMITH & LAUFE 1946: 62
Ameiva undulata undulata — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950
Ameiva undulata undulata —STUART 1963
Holcosus undulatus undulatus — HARVEY et al. 2012 (by implication)
Holcosus undulatus — MEZA-LÁZARO et al. 2015
Holcosus undulatus — JOHNSON et al. 2017 
DistributionCosta Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Belize, S Mexico (Yucatan, Querétaro [HR 27: 210]); elevation: 80-100 m

amphigramma: Mexico (N Veracruz southward at low elevations to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, westward into valleys extending into extreme E Oaxaca, NE Puebla; Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Nuevo León). Type locality: San Andrés Tuxtla, Veracruz.

dextra: Southern slope of the Sierra Madre del Sur. Oaxaca, Guerrero. Type locality: Near Rincón, Guerrero.

gaigeae: Northern half of the Yucatán Peninsula and southward to the island Carmen along the extreme eastern coast; Yucatán, Campeche, Quintana Roo. Type locality: Progreso, Yucatán.

hartwegi: Atlantic slopes of Mexico (Chiapas) and Guatemala from the vicinity of the southeastern end of Laguna de Términos south and eastward across the base of the Yucatán Peninsula to NW Honduras. Campeche, Quintana Roo, Yucatan. Type locality: “across the Río Usumacinta from Piedras Negras, Guatemala, in Chiapas, Mexico”.

miadis: Isla del Maíz Grande. Type locality: “Great Corn Island” [= Isla del Maiz Grande”], Depto. Zelaya, Nicaragua.

parva: Guatemala, Pacific slopes from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Oaxaca to Costa Rica. Chiapas. Type locality: Guatemala. Restricted to Mazatenango by SMITH & LAUFE 1946.

podarga: S Tamaulipas, E San Luis Potosí, probably Veracruz and Hidalgo. Type locality: 7 miles west of Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas.

pulchra: Caribbean slope of Honduras south to Costa Rica;Type locality: Nicaragua.

sinistra: Mexico (Colima, Jalisco, Michoacán, Puebla, Morelos, Nayarit; Pacific slopes from Jalisco to the arid Balsas basin in Michoacán, thence inland along the northern drainage of the Río Balsas to Puebla). Type locality: Manzanillo, Colima.

stuarti: Atlantic slopes of Mexico from the middle of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec eastward in the lowlands to the southern border of Laguna de Términos and to Tenosique, Tabasco. southward up the valley of the Río Rrijalva at least as far as Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas. Campeche, Oaxaca. Type locality: Palenque, Chiapas.

thomasi: Upper tributaries of Río Grijalva in the interior of Chiapas and adjacent Guatemala. Type locality: La Libertad, Chiapas, near Río Cuilco where it crosses the Gutemalan border.

undulata: Pacific slopes of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec as far west as Puerto Ángel, and eastward to Niltepec. Oaxaca. Type locality: Mexico (by inference). Restricted to Tehuantepec by SMITH 1940.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: ZMB 867-869 (undulata)
Holotype: FMNH 100020 (was EHT-HMS 11983) [amphigramma]
Holotype: FMNH 100080 (was EHT-HMS 11966) [dextra]
Holotype: FMNH 100030 (was EHT-HMS 11927) [gaigeae]
Holotype: USNM 108600 [hartwegi]
Holotype: MCZ [miadis]
Holotype: MCZ 5831 [parva]
Holotype: FMNH 100050 (was EHT-HMS 14471) [podarga]
Holotype: FMNH 100054 (was EHT-HMS 11908) [sinistra]
Holotype: USNM 108601 [stuarti]
Holotype: FMNH 100006 (was EHT-HMS 15327) [thomasi]
Holotype: AMNH R16316 [amivoides] 
CommentDistribution of subspecies mainly from SMITH & TAYLOR 1950. See map in Smith & Laufe 1946 (Fig. 7) and Meza-Lázaro et al. 2015 (Fig. 1).

Subspecies: Echternacht (1971) suggested not to recognize any subspecies. By contrast, Meza-Lázaro et al. 2015 elevated all subspecies of H. undulatus to (evolutionary) species status.

Synonymy: Schmidt & Stuart (1941) noted that the specimens of A. u. quadrilineata of Barbour & Noble (1915) actually represented A. pulchra.Echternacht (1971) synonymized H. u. thomasi with H. chaitzami. Meza-Lázaro et al. 2015 consider as an incontrovertible population of H. chaitzami only that from its type locality, and tentatively assigned the specimens from Comitán, Chiapas and Huehuetenango, Guatemala, to H. u. thomasi following Smith & Laufe (1946). Meza-Lázaro et al. 2015 synonymized amphigrammus and podargus. They also found several additional lineages that may be cryptic species. Southeastern H. u. dextrus formed a clade with H. u. undulatus and northwestern dextrus formed a clade with sinister. However, these populations were not formally synonymized. Similarly, Mexican, Guatemalan, and Honduran parvus formed a clade that included thomasi as sister to Mexican parvus. See Figs. 2 and 4 in Meza-Lázaro et al. 2015 for phylogenetic analyses.

Illustrations: Note that the photo legends of Mesoscincus managuae and Ameiva undulata in Leenders (2004) have been mixed up.

Species group: The H. undulatus group contains six species (Harvey, Ugueto & Gutberlet, 2012): H. chaitzami Stuart, 1942, H. festivus (Lichtenstein & Von Martens, 1856), H. leptophrys (Cope, 1893), H. niceforoi (Dunn, 1943), H. quadrilineatus (Hallowell, 1860) and H. undulatus (Wiegmann, 1834).

Relative abundance in Honduras: infrequent 
EtymologyThe specific name undulatus is a Latin word meaning wavy or undulating, in reference to the dorsolateral pattern. 
References
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