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Homonota septentrionalis CACCIALI, MORANDO, MEDINA, KÖHLER, MOTTE & AVILA, 2017

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Higher TaxaPhyllodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymHomonota septentrionalis CACCIALI, MORANDO, MEDINA, KÖHLER, MOTTE & AVILA 2017 
DistributionParaguay (Boquerón, Chaco), SE Bolivia

Type locality: Fortín Mayor Infante Rivarola (21.679°S, 62.401°W, 277 masl), Boquerón Department, Paraguay  
ReproductionReproduction. Oviparous. Gravid females of H. taragui where found during November and December, and the egg clutches in December. Egg clutches in the field and those laid by females in captivity consisted of a single egg. 
TypesHolotype: MNHNP 12238 Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay, San Lorenzo; original field number PCS 200), adult female (Fig. 10), collected on 10 December 2014 by P. Cacciali. Paratypes: MNHNP 2821, 9037–8, 9131, 11406*, 11409*, 11410, 11419, 11421, 11423 (Parque Nacional Teniente Enciso, Boquerón Department, Paraguay; 21.209°S, 61.655°W, 253 masl); MNHNP 11850, 11855, 11860, 11872, 11873* (Cruce San Miguel, in front of Parque Nacional Teniente Enciso, Boquerón Department, Paraguay; 21.203°S, 61.662°W, 254 masl); SMF 101984* (topotype); SMF 29277 (Villamontes, Tarija Department, Bolivia; 21.266°S, 63.451°W, 398 masl). Holotype and specimens marked with an asterisk (*) were used for molecular analyses. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: This is the largest species of the genus (max. 65 mm SVL) with robust body, prominent keeled tubercles disposed in four to eight longitudinal rows, and coloration pattern of dark background with one vertebral and six or seven transversal clear bands. It can be distinguished from H. andicola, H. whitii, and H. underwoodi by the presence of strongly keeled dorsal scales (vs. smooth dorsal scales in H. andicola, H. whitii, and H. underwoodi), transversal clear bands on a darker dorsum (vs. reticulated pattern), and from H. underwoodi also by a lower number of 4TL (16–20) and 3FL (11–15) (vs. 20–25 and 15–17 respectively in H. underwoodi). From H. borellii and H. rupicola by the oblique shape of the auditory meatus (vs. round in H. borellii and H. rupicola), transversal clear bands on a darker dorsum (vs. reticulated pattern), and also from H. borelli by the presence of strongly keeled dorsal scales (vs. moderately keeled), and from H. rupicola by a higher number of 4TL (16–20) (vs. 14–15). From H. darwinii by the presence of strongly keeled dorsal scales (vs. smooth at least on the anterior part of the dorsum in H. darwinii), and by transversal clear bands on a darker dorsum (vs. reticulated pattern). From
H. rupicola and H. taragui by the presence of enlarged keeled tubercles on the sides of the head behind the orbits (vs. homogeneous granular scales). From H. uruguayensis by a higher number of IL scales (6–7, vs. 4–5 in H. uruguayensis), by the coloration, and by the serrated edge of the auditory meatus (vs. smooth granular edge in H. uruguayensis). From H. williamsii by the presence of strongly keeled dorsal scales (vs. moderately keeled) and by transversal clear bands on a darker dorsum (vs. reticulated pattern). From H. horrida (the most similar species) by the high position of the auditory meatus relative to the mouth commissure (vs. lower position in H. horrida); less developed tubercles on the sides of the head, including a narrow area between the orbit and the auditory meatus covered with small granular scales with without or with few tubercles (vs. several big tubercles on the sides of the head even in the area between the orbit and the auditory meatus) (Fig. 11 in Cacciali et la. 2017).
 
CommentHabitat: thorny dry forest, with null or scarce herbaceous stratum (Fig. 13 in Cacciali et al. 2017), on the ground.

Similar species: H. marthae

Behavior: nocturnal 
EtymologyThe specific name septentrionalis is Latin, meaning ‘‘northern’’ and refers to the fact that this species has the northernmost distribution of all the Homonota species. 
References
  • Cacciali P, Morando M, Avila LJ, Koehler G 2018. Description of a new species of Homonota (Reptilia, Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) from the central region of northern Paraguay. Zoosystematics and Evolution 94 (1): 147-161 - get paper here
  • Cacciali P, Morando M, Medina CD, Köhler G, Motte M, Avila LJ. 2017. Taxonomic analysis of Paraguayan samples of Homonota fasciata Duméril & Bibron (1836) with the revalidation of Homonota horrida Burmeister (1861) (Reptilia: Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) and the description of a new species. PeerJ 5:e3523 - get paper here
 
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