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Hoplocercus spinosus FITZINGER, 1843

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Higher TaxaHoplocercidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Spiny Weapontail
S: lagartijas de cola armorizada espinosas 
SynonymHoplocercus spinosus FITZINGER 1843: 78
Pachycercus aculeatus DUGÉS & BRACONNIER in DUMÉRIL 1854: 29
Hoplocercus spinosus — BOULENGER 1885: 199
Hoplocercus spinosus — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 148
Hoplocercus spinosus — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Hoplocercus spinosus — PIANKA & VITT 2003: 168
Hoplocercus spinosus — TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2011 
DistributionBrazil (Mato Grosso, Goias, S Para), Bolivia (Santa Cruz)

Type locality: America and Brazil. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: not located
Holotype: not located, formerly MNHN [Pachycercus aculeatus] 
CommentType species: Hoplocercus spinosus FITZINGER 1843 is the type species of the genus Hoplocercus FITZINGER 1843. Hoplocercus is als the type genus of the (sub-) family Hoplocercinae ALIFANOV 1996.

Diagnosis (genus and species): A depressed, short tail (tail length < snout-vent length), with enlarged spiny scales dorsally and lat- erally is unique to Hoplocercus among hoplocercines. Moreover, Hoplocercus differs from Enyalioides and Morunasaurus (character states in parentheses) in having the anterior opening of the Vidian canal on the ventral surface of the parabasisphenoid (anterior surface of the parabasisphenoid [dorsum sella] lateral to the sella turcica; Wiens & Etheridge 2003); a non-autotomic tail (autotomic; Etheridge 1967); slender and rounded sacral diapophy- ses (robust and flattened; Wiens & Etheridge 2003); and transverse processes of caudal vertebrae increasing in length from first to fourth caudal vertebra (decreasing in length throughout column; Wiens & Etheridge 2003). Hoplocercus can be further distinguished from Morunasaurus by having a parietal eye (Etheridge and de Queiroz (in Estes & Pregill, 1988), TORRES-CARVAJAL & DE QUEIROZ 2011] 
EtymologyEtymology (genus): hoplon (Greek) = armor, shield, kerkos (Greek) = tail. 
References
  • Avila-Pires,T.C.S. 1995. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen 299: 1-706 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Bour, Roger & Édouard-Raoul Brygoo 2013. Séraphin Braconnier (1812-1884), le premier «garçon de laboratoire» de la chaire des Reptiles et Poissons du Muséum de Paris. Bull. Soc. Herp. Fr. 148: 503-513
  • Ceriaco, Luis M. P. 2014. Some historical notes about the possible precedence of "Lacerta xiphidiura" Carvalho, 1836, as the first identification of the Brazilian Spiny-tailed Lizard Hoplocercus spinosus Fitzinger, 1843, and general remarks on early nineteenth century Portugu Bibliotheca Herpetologica 11 (1-2): 42-55
  • Dirksen, L. & De la Riva, I. 1999. The lizards and amphisbaenians of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata): checklist, localities, and bibliography. Graellsia 55: 199-215
  • Estes, Richard & Pregill, Gregory, eds. 1988. Phylogenetic relationships of the Lizard Families: Esaays Commemorating Charles L. Camp. Stanford University Press, xvi + 632 pp.
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Harvey, M. B. 1995. A preliminary list of the reptiles and amphibians of the El Refugio biological reserve. In: Forsyth, A. (ed.), A report on aspects of biodiversiy and conservation potential in El Refugio. Conservation International, Washington. Pp. 21-26.
  • Peters, James A. & Donoso-Barros, Roberto 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 293 pp. - get paper here
  • Pianka, E.R. & Vitt, L.J. 2003. Lizards - Windows to the Evolution of Diversity. University of California Press, Berkeley, 347 pp. [review in Copeia 2004: 955] - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A. 2015. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. I. Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae. Zootaxa 3983 (1): 001–110
  • Scrocchi, G. & L. GONZÁLES 1996. Kentropyx calcarata (NCN). Behavior. Herpetological Review 27 (4): 201. - get paper here
  • Sick, H. 1951. Beobachtungen an dem Stachelschwanz-leguan, Hoplocercus spinosus. Natur. U. Volk 81: 30-35
  • Siebenrock, Friedrich 1892. Ueber Wirbelassimilation bei den Sauriern. Annalen des Königlichen Kaiserlichen Naturhistorischen Hofmuseum in Wien 7: 373-378
  • Torres-Carvajal, Omar; RICHARD ETHERIDGE & KEVIN DE QUEIROZ 2011. A systematic revision of Neotropical lizards in the clade Hoplocercinae (Squamata: Iguania). Zootaxa 2752: 1–44 - get paper here
  • Vitt, L. J.; Caldwell, J. P.; Colli, G. R.; Garda, A. A.; Mesquita, D. O.; França, F. G. R. e Balbino, S. F. 2002. Um guia fotográfico dos répteis e anfíbios da região do Jalapão no Cerrado brasileiro. Norman, Oklahoma: Special Publications in Herpetology. San Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History
  • Wiens, John J. and Richard E. Etheridge 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Hoplocercid lizards: coding and combining meristic, morphometric, and polymorphic data using step matrices. Herpetologica 59 (3): 375-398 - get paper here
 
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