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Hydrophis annandalei (LAIDLAW, 1901)

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesBighead Sea Snake, Annandale’s sea snake 
SynonymDistira annandalei LAIDLAW 1901: 579
Kolpophis annandalei — SMITH 1926: 106
Kolpophis annandalei — SMITH 1943: 467
Lapemis annandalei — RASMUSSEN 1997: 22
Kolpophis annandalei — RASMUSSEN 1997: 23
Kolpophis annandalei — MURPHY, COX & VORIS 1999
Kolpophis annandalei — DAVID et al. 2004
Kolpophis annandalei — RASMUSSEN et al. 2011
Kolpophis annandalei — WALLACH et al. 2014: 352
Hydrophis annandalei — LEVITON et al. 2014
Hydrophis annandalei — LEE et al. 2016 
DistributionIndian Ocean (W Malaysia, S Vietnam, Indonesia: Borneo, Java), Thailand, Singapore

Type locality: Patani Bay, Thailand  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 

Habitat: marine and freshwater (Rasmussen et al. 2001).

Type species: Distira annandalei LAIDLAW 1901: 59 is the type species of the genus Kolpophis SMITH 1926. 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. "Thomas" Nelson Annandale (1876-1924), zoologist and Superintendent of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Das, I. 1993. Annandales’s seasnake, Kolpophis annandalei (Laidlaw 1901): a new record for Borneo. Raffles Bull. Zool. 41: 359-361 - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • DAVID, Patrick; MEREL J. COX, OLIVIER S. G. PAUWELS, LAWAN CHANHOME AND KUMTHORN THIRAKHUPT 2004. Book Review - When a bookreview is not sufficient to say all: an in-depth analysis of a recent book on the snakes of Thailand, with an updated checklist of the snakes of the Kingdom. The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 4(1): 47-80 - get paper here
  • Laidlaw, F. F 1901. List of a Collection of Snakes, Crocodiles, and Chelonians from the Malay Peninsula, made by members of the "Skeat Expedition," 1899 - 1900. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1901 (2): 575 - 583 - get paper here
  • Lee, Michael S. Y.; Kate L. Sanders, Benedict King, Alessandro Palci 2016. Diversification rates and phenotypic evolution in venomous snakes (Elapidae) R. Soc. open sci., DOI: 10.1098/rsos.150277 - get paper here
  • Leviton, A.E., R.M. Brown, and C.D. Siler. 2014. The dangerously venomous snakes of the Philippine Archipelago. in The Coral Triangle: The 2011 Hearst Biodiversity Philippine Expedition (G.C. Williams and T.M. Gosliner, eds.). California Academy of Sciences, USA, Pp 473–530
  • Murphy,J.C.; Cox,M.J. & Voris,H.K. 1999. A key to the sea snakes in the gulf of Thailand. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 47: 95-108
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Rasmussen, A. R., M. AULIYA & W. BÖHME 2001. A new species of sea snake genus Hydrophis (Serpentes: Elapidae) from a river in West Kalimantan (Indonesia, Borneo). Herpetologica 57 (1): 23-32 - get paper here
  • Rasmussen,A.R. 1997. Systematics of sea snakes: a critical review. In: Thorpe,R.S., Wüster,W. & Malhotra,A. (eds.) Venomous snakes - ecology, evolution and snakebite. Clarendon Press (Oxford)/Symp. zool. Soc. Lond. 70: 15-30
  • Smith, M. A. 1926. Monograph on the Sea Snakes. (Hydrophiidae). London: British Museum, xvii + 130 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Stuebing, R.B. & INGER, R.F. 1999. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo. Natural history Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, 254 pp. [corrections in HR 31: 124].
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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