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Hydrophis anomalus (SCHMIDT, 1852)

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Anomalous Sea Snake 
SynonymThalassophis anomala SCHMIDT 1852: 81
Hydrophis anomala — FISCHER 1856: 58
Thalassophis anomalus — SMITH 1943: 466
Hydrophis anomalus — TAYLOR 1965: 1012
Thalassophis anomalus — MURPHY, COX & VORIS 1999
Thalassophis anomalous — STUEBING & INGER 1999: 222 (in error)
Thalassophis anomalus — RASMUSSEN et al. 2011
Thalassophis anomalus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 716
Hydrophis [Thalassophis] anomalus — LEVITON et al. 2014: 502
Hydrophis [Thalassophis] anomalus — LEVITON et al. 2018: 459
Thalassophis anomalus — MILTO & LUKIN 2020 
DistributionSouth Chinese Sea (Malaysia, Gulf of Thailand), Vietnam, Indian Ocean (Indonesia: Sumatra, Java, Borneo)

Type locality: “Rhede von Samarang” (= Semarang ?), coast of Java.  
TypesHolotype: ZMH R03342 (formerly no. 402); 1 paratype ZMH R03343 (formerly no. 406). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Taylor 1965: 1012

Description: Taylor 1965: 1012 

Habitat: marine.

Diagnostic characters: A pair of elongated shields separate the nasals, rostral divided into four or five scales. Head shields with thickened edges. Scale rows around neck 2–30; scale rows around body 31–35; ventrals 210– 256. Maxillary teeth behind fangs 5. Colouration: Greyish above. Whitish below with dark bands, which taper to a point laterally or continue as narrow bands ventrally to encircle the body.

Type species: Thalassophis anomala SCHMIDT 1852: 81 is the type species of the genus Thalassophis SCHMIDT 1852. 
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Fischer, J.G. 1856. Die Familie der Seeschlangen. Abhandl. Nat. Ver. Hamburg 3: 1-78 - get paper here
  • Kharin, V. E. 2006. An Annotated Checklist of Sea Snakes of Vietnam, with Notes on a New Record of the Yellow-Lipped Sea Krait, Laticauda colubrina (Schneider, 1799)(Laticaudidae, Hydrophiidae). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 32 (4): 223–228. - get paper here
  • Kharin, Vladimir E.; Jakob Hallermann 2009. Annotated catalogue of sea kraits (Laticaudidae) and sea snakes (Hydrophiidae) of the herpetological collection of the Zoological Museum, University of Hamburg. Mitt. hamb. zool. Mus. Inst. 106: 51-67
  • Kopstein, F. 1938. Ein Beitrag zur Eierkunde und zur Fortpflanzung der Malaiischen Reptilien. Bull. Raffles Mus. No 14: 81-167
  • Murphy,J.C.; Cox,M.J. & Voris,H.K. 1999. A key to the sea snakes in the gulf of Thailand. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 47: 95-108
  • RASMUSSEN, ARNE REDSTED; JOHAN ELMBERG, PETER GRAVLUND & IVAN INEICH 2011. Sea snakes (Serpentes: subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae) in Vietnam: a comprehensive checklist and an updated identification key. Zootaxa 2894: 1–20 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Philipp 1852. Beiträge zur ferneren Kenntniss der Meerschlangen. Abh. Nat. Ver. Hamburg 2 (2): 69-86
  • Smith, M.A. 1916. Note on a rare sea snake (Thalassophis anomalus) from the coast of Siam. J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam 2: 176-7 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Stuebing, R.B. & INGER, R.F. 1999. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo. Natural history Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, 254 pp. [corrections in HR 31: 124]. - get paper here
  • Stuebing, R.B., Inger, R.F. & Lardner, B. 2014. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo, second edition. Natural history Publications (Borneo)
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
  • Ukuwela, K.D.B., de Silva, A., Sivaruban, A. et al. 2022. Diversity, distribution, and natural history of the marine snakes of Sri Lanka. Marine Biodiversity 52, 24 (2022) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Weinell, Jeffrey L.; Errol Hooper, Alan E. Leviton, Rafe M. Brown 2019. Illustrated Key to the Snakes of the Philippines. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 66 (1): 1-49 - get paper here
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