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Hydrophis nigrocinctus DAUDIN, 1803

IUCN Red List - Hydrophis nigrocinctus - Data Deficient, DD

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Black-banded sea snake 
SynonymHydrophis nigrocinctus DAUDIN 1803: 380
Hydrophis nigro-cinctus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1350
Hydrophis nigrocincta — FISCHER 1856: 46
Melanomystax nigrocinctus — WALL 1921: 383
Hydrophis nigrocinctus — SMITH 1943: 452
Disteira walli KHARIN 1989
Disteira nigrocincta — WELCH 1994: 55
Hydrophis nigrocinctus — DAS 1996: 61
Disteira nigrocinctus — RASMUSSEN 1997
Disteira nigrocincta — HEATWOLE 1999: 131
Hydrophis nigrocinctus — SHARMA 2004
Disteira walli — KHARIN 2005
Disteira nigrocincta — KHARIN 2005
Hydrophis nigrocinctus — RASMUSSEN et al. 2011
Disteira nigrocincta — WALLACH et al. 2014: 240
Disteira nigrocinctus — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 265 
DistributionIndian Ocean: India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar (= Burma), Thailand, Malaysia

Type locality: “salted waters of a river near Calcutta,Sundarbans”, Bengal  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.10.13, but original description based on Russell, 1801, p. 7, pl. 6 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS (DIAGNOSIS).— Mental scute large, not concealed in mental groove; 1–3 maxillary teeth behind fangs; 7–9 palatine teeth, similar in size to ptergyoid teeth; head with yellow supraorbital stripe surrounding a blackish crown patch that extends forward to prefrontals; olive to brown above with 40 to 60 narrow dark annuli; yellowish below; 27–33 scale rows around neck, 39–45 around midbody, imbricate and keeled; ventrals 296–330, distinct throughout but not twice as large as adjacent scales; preanal scales enlarged. Total length 1080 mm, tail length 125 mm. [after LEVITON 2003] 

Distribution: Not listed by GRANDISON 1977 for West Malaysia or Singapore.

Habitat: marine.

Synonymy: RASMUSSEN et al. 2011 synonymized H. walli with H. nigrocinctus; H. walli “is closely related to D. nigrocincta and differs from it in teethless (excluding fangs) maxillare, characters of the heart and hemipenis, absence of the cuneate on infralablials” (from KHARIN 1989). 
  • Aengals, R.; V.M. Sathish Kumar & Muhamed Jafer Palot 2013. Updated Checklist of Indian Reptiles. Privately published, 24 pp.
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Daudin, F. M. 1803. Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière des Reptiles. vol. 7. Paris: Dufart, 436 pp. [publication date fide Harper 1940] - get paper here
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J.G. 1856. Die Familie der Seeschlangen. Abhandl. Nat. Ver. Hamburg 3: 1-78 - get paper here
  • Ganesh, S., Nandhini, T., Samuel, V., Sreeraj, C., Abhilash, K., Purvaja, R., & Ramesh, R. 2019. Marine snakes of Indian coasts: historical resume, systematic checklist, toxinology, status, and identification key. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 11(1), 13132-13150 - get paper here
  • Heatwole, H. 1999. Sea snakes, 2nd ed. Krieger, Malabar, 148 pp. [review in Copeia 2000 (4): 1136] - get paper here
  • Kharin V E 1989. A new sea snake species of the genus Disteira (Serpentes, Hydrophoriidae) from the waters of the Malay Archipelago [in Russian]. Vestnik Zoologii, Kiev 1989 (1): 29-32.
  • Kharin, Vladimir E. and Vladimir P. Czeblukov 2009. A Revision of the Sea Snakes of Subfamily Hydrophiinae. 1. Tribe Disteirini Nov. (Serpentes: Hydrophiidae). Russ. J. Herpetol. 16 (3):183-202 - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Guinevere O.U. Wogan; Michelle S. Koo; George R. Zug; Rhonda S. Lucas and Jens V. Vindum 2003. The Dangerously Venomous Snakes of Myanmar Illustrated Checklist with Keys. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 54 (24): 407–462 - get paper here
  • Rasmussen, Arne R.; Ineich, Ivan; Elmberg, Johan; McCarthy, Colin 2011. Status of the Asiatic Sea Snakes of the Hydrophis nigrocinctus group (H. nigrocinctus, H. hendersoni, and H. walli; Elapidae, Hydrophiinae). Amphibia-Reptilia 32 (4): 459-464 - get paper here
  • Rasmussen,A.R. 1997. Systematics of sea snakes: a critical review. In: Thorpe,R.S., Wüster,W. & Malhotra,A. (eds.) Venomous snakes - ecology, evolution and snakebite. Clarendon Press (Oxford)/Symp. zool. Soc. Lond. 70: 15-30 - get paper here
  • Russell, P. 1801. A continuation of an account of Indian serpents: containing descriptions and figures from specimens and drawings, transmitted from various parts of India to the hon. Court of Directors of the East Indian Company. Volume 2. London, W. Bulmer and Co for G. and W. Nicol., pp. i–v + 1–12, pls. 1–10, [see Adler 2015 for details] - get paper here
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Wall, FRANK 1921. Ophidia Taprobanica or the Snakes of Ceylon. Colombo Mus. (H. R. Cottle, govt. printer), Colombo. xxii, 581 pages - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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