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Hydrophis peronii (DUMÉRIL, 1853)

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesSpiny-headed seasnake 
SynonymAcalyptus Peronii DUMÉRIL 1853
? Acalyptus superciliosus vel Peroni — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1340
Acalyptus superciliosus — FISCHER 1856: 37
Acalyptophis peronii BOULENGER 1896: 269
Pseudodisteira horrida KINGHORN 1926
Acalyptophis peroni — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Acalyptophis peronii — COX et al. 1998: 34
Acalyptophis peronii — MURPHY, COX & VORIS 1999
Acalyptophis peronii — COGGER 2000: 698
Acalyptophis peronii — WILSON & SWAN 2010: 518
Hydrophis peronii — SANDERS et al. 2012
Acalyptophis peronii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 3
Acalyptophis peronii — COGGER 2014: 813
Acalyptophis peronii — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 268 
DistributionGulf of Siam, Vietnam, Thailand,
China (South Chinese sea, coast of Guangdong and Strait of Taiwan),
Indonesia, Philippines, New Guinea, New Caledonia,
Australia (New South Wales?, North Territory, Queensland, West Australia)

Type locality: New Holland (= Australia) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: MNHN 7711 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: partly after COGGER 1983.

Illustration: Plate 40E in ZHAO & ADLER 1993.

Habitat: marine. Acalyptophis peronii is a sea snake.

Type species: this is the type species of the genus Acalyptophis BOULENGER 1896. The genus Acalyptus is preoccupied by Acalyptus Schoenherr 1836 (Coleoptera).

Diagnostic characters: The only sea snake with spines on the head: parietal and frontal scales broken up, supra- and postoculars and adjacent scales with spines posteriorly. Scale rows around neck 18–24, rarely up to 27; scale rows around body 23–31, rarely 21 or 32; ventrals 142–222. Maxillary teeth behind fangs 5–8. Colouration: Body cream, grey or pale brown above, paler below, with brown/black bands, which are brighter ventrally. Sometimes has dark small bars or spots between the bands, tapering to a point on the sides. 
References
  • Bauer, A. M. & SADLIER, R. A. (eds.) 2000. The herpetofauna of New Caledonia. Contributions to Herpetology, 17; Society for Study Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York.
  • Bauer, Aaron M.;Vindum, Jens V. 1990. A checklist and key to the herpetofauna of New Caledonia, with remarks on biogeography. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 47 (2): 17-45 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp.
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Duméril, ANDRÉ MARIE CONSTANT 1853. Prodrome de la classifcation des reptiles ophidiens. Mém. Acad. Sci., Paris, 23: 399-536 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J.G. 1856. Die Familie der Seeschlangen. Abhandl. Nat. Ver. Hamburg 3: 1-78
  • Kharin, V. E. 2006. An Annotated Checklist of Sea Snakes of Vietnam, with Notes on a New Record of the Yellow-Lipped Sea Krait, Laticauda colubrina (Schneider, 1799)(Laticaudidae, Hydrophiidae). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 32 (4): 223–228.
  • Longman, H. A. 1915. Reptiles from Queensland and the Northern Territory. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 3: 30-34.
  • Murphy,J.C.; Cox,M.J. & Voris,H.K. 1999. A key to the sea snakes in the gulf of Thailand. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 47: 95-108
  • O'Shea,M. 1996. A Guide to the Snakes of Papua New Guinea. Independent Publishing, Port Moresby, xii + 239 pp. - get paper here
  • RASMUSSEN, ARNE REDSTED; JOHAN ELMBERG, PETER GRAVLUND & IVAN INEICH 2011. Sea snakes (Serpentes: subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae) in Vietnam: a comprehensive checklist and an updated identification key. Zootaxa 2894: 1–20 - get paper here
  • RASMUSSEN, ARNE REDSTED; KATE LAURA SANDERS, MICHAEL L. GUINEA & ANDREW P. AMEY 2014. Sea snakes in Australian waters (Serpentes: subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae)—a review with an updated identification key. Zootaxa 3869 (4): 351–371 - get paper here
  • Sanders, K.L.; Michael S.Y. Lee, Mumpuni, Terry Bertozzi, Arne R. Rasmussen 2012. Multilocus phylogeny and recent rapid radiation of the viviparous sea snakes (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66 (3): 575-591 - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
  • VORIS, HAROLD K. 2017. Diversity of Marine Snakes on Trawling Grounds in the Straits of Malacca and the South China Sea Tropical Natural History 17(2): 65–87 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
 
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