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Hydrophis schistosus DAUDIN, 1803

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Common or beaked seasnake, Hook-nosed sea snake
Farsi: Mâr-e daryâï-ye nokdâr 
SynonymHydrophis schistosus DAUDIN 1803: 386
Hydrus valakadyn BOIE 1827: 554
Disteira russelii FITZINGER 1827: 733 (based on RUSSELL 1801)
Polyodontes annulatus LESSON 1831: 325
Hydrophis schistosa SCHLEGEL 1837:500 (not of DAUDIN 1803)
Hydrophis subfasciata GRAY 1842: 62
Hydrophis bengalensis GRAY 1842: 62
Enhydrina valakadyen — GRAY 1849: 48 (emendation)
Thalassophis werneri SCHMIDT 1852
Hydrophis schistosus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1344
Hydrophis schistosa — FISCHER 1856: 48
Enhydrina schistosa STOLICZKA 1870: 213
Enhydrina valakadyen STOLICZKA 1870: 213
Hydrophis fasciatus — JAN 1872 (not of SCHNEIDER)
Hydrophis schistosus — JAN 1872
Enhydrina valakadien — BOULENGER 1890: 406 (emendation)
Enhydrina vikadien — BOETTGER 1892: 89 (in error)
Enhydrina schistosa — VAN DENBURGH 1895
Enhydrina valakadien — BOULENGER 1896: 302
Enhydrina velakadien — FLOWER 1899: 688 (in error)
Enhydrina valakadyn — STEJNEGER 1907: 437
Enhydrina valakadien — GADOW 1909
Enhydrina valakadyen — WALL 1921: 401
Enhydrina schistosa — SMITH 1943: 449
Disteira schistosa — MCDOWELL 1972: 239
Disteira schistosa — GRANDISON 1978: 295
Enhydrina schistosa — GLAW & VENCES 1994: 350
Disteira schistosa — RASMUSSEN 1997
Enhydrina schistosa — COX et al. 1998: 35
Enhydrina schistosa — MURPHY, COX & VORIS 1999
Enhydrina schistosa — COGGER 2000: 709
Enhydrina schistosa — WILSON & SWAN 2010: 524
Enhydrina schistosa — RASMUSSEN et al. 2011
Hydrophis schistosus — SANDERS et al. 2012 [by implication]
Enhydrina schistosa — WALLACH et al. 2014: 269
Enhydrina schistosus — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 266
Hydrophis schistosus — REZAIE-ATAGHOLIPOUR et al. 2016 
DistributionArabian/Persian Gulf (Oman, United Arab Emirates [UAE], Iran, etc.) south of the Seychelles
SE Asian Sea: Pakistan, India (Kerala), Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar (= Burma), Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia (Borneo: incl. Sabah, Sarawak)
Australia (North Territory, Queensland),
New Guinea

Type locality: Tranquebar, India Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous. 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.10.7 
CommentVenomous! One of the most dangerous snakes with a highly potent toxin (LD50 = 0,01 mg/kg in mice; FLINDT 2002).

Diversity: Australian “E. schistosa” has been elevated to species status and provisionally referred to Enhydrina zweifeli by Ukuwela et al. 2013.

Synonymy mostly after STEJNEGER 1907 who listed Enhydrina valakadyn as valid species.

Distribution: Probably not in Madagascar fide F. Glaw (pers. comm.).

Type species: Enhydrina valakadyen Gray, 1849 is the type species of the genus Enhydrina GRAY 1849.

DIAGNOSIS: Mental scute small, partly concealed within mental groove; 3–4 maxillary teeth behind fangs; 5–6 palatine teeth, palatine teeth larger than pterygoid teeth; no subor-bital stripe; young dark gray above, whitish below, with dark gray or black annuli; pattern disappears in adults which are uniform gray in color; scales around body variable, in Bay of Bengal, scales around neck, males 43–52, females 48–55, scales around midbody, males 53–60, females 55–65, scales some-what imbricate or juxtaposed, with short central keel; ventrals 262–322; preanal scales only slightly enlarged. Total length 1400 mm, tail length 180 mm (but rarely exceeding 1100 mm total length).

Diagnosis: in KHARIN 2009, REZAIE-ATAGHOLIPOUR et al. 2016: 136.

Habitat: marine and freshwater (Rasmussen et al. 2001). 
References
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