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Hydrosaurus microlophus (BLEEKER, 1860)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Hydrosaurinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: (Sulawesi) Sailfin Lizard
G: Segelechse 
SynonymIstiurus microlophus BLEEKER 1860: 80
Istiurus microlophus — BLEEKER 1860: 85
Istiurus amboinensis — BLEEKER 1860: 85
Lophura amboinensis — BOULENGER 1885: 402 (part)
Lophura amboinensis — CASTO DE ELERA 1895: 417 (part)
Lophura amboinensis — DE ROOIJ 1915: 128 (part)
Lophura amboinensis var. celebensis — WEBER 1890: 160, 167
Hydrosaurus amboinensis — WERMUTH 1967: 64 (part)
Hydrosaurus microlophus — DENZER et al. 2020 
DistributionIndonesia (Sulawesi)

Type locality: Makassar (formerly Ujung Pandang), Celebes (= Sulawesi)”  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: NHMUK 1863.12.4.35, juvenile 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Large species exceeding 1000 mm in total length; largest specimen, SMF 35996, SVL = 325 mm, TL = 745mm (TL/SVL = 2.29), tip of the tail missing; complete specimen, MZB Lac 5870, SVL 131 mm, TL 315 mm (TL/SVL = 2.4) [Remark: The MVZ database gives 370 mm as tail length]. Head black; sometimes with yel- lowish colour around the eyes, the same on the lower half of the neck and in front of the shoulders as well as in the gular region; nuchal region black; a group of enlarged conical or pyramidal scales on either side of the neck; nuchal and dorsal crests continuous; in males, the sides of the body are dirty yellow with three groups of enlarged conical or pyramidal scales, often forming a triangular shape, between fore and hindlimbs that decrease in size ventrally to form transverse bands, the largest scales being black in colour; adult females are black with yellow enlarged scales; some females (presumably subadults or non-reproducing specimens) and juveniles typically grey with the groups of enlarged scales being whitish in colour; yellow ventrally, limbs on the upper side black and on the underside yel- low (grey in subadults and juveniles); scales under fourth and fifth toes initially flat or singly keeled; tail black with some irregular yellow markings; sail dirty yellow to light brown with black stripes (Denzer et al. 2020: 287).

Comparisons: H. microlophus differs from H. amboinensis by the possession of the following characters: grossly enlarged scales near the onset of the forelimbs; strongly enlarged conical or pyramidal scales in groups forming dorsolateral bands (all of these characters are either not or only slightly developed in H. amboinensis). Fur- thermore, H. microlophus differs from H. amboinensis in colouration (yellowish green in male H. amboinensis and green in females with black marbling in both sexes vs. dirty yellow dorsal colouration with the groups of enlarged scales being dark coloured in male H. microlophus, plus dark dorsal colouration with the groups of enlarged scales being whitish/yellowish in female H. microlophus together with the top of the head and neck being black and the throat being yellow in colour in both sexes) they also possess a nasal crest (absent in H. amboinensis, see Figure 6a). Most noticeably, the males of H. microlophus differ in their pattern from the males of H. celebensis the latter having complete or near complete black heads, limbs and tails. H. microlophus differs from H. weberi in general colouration and pattern, the latter being grey green. H. microlophus differs from H. celebensis and H. weberi by having groups of enlarged (black in males, white or yellow in females) conical and pyramidal scales on the dorsum. In every case the number of scales in the major groups of enlarged scales is larger than that in H. celebensis. In H. microlophus the nuchal and dorsal crests are continuous, while they are separated by considerably smaller scales on the neck in H. weberi. (Denzer et al. 2020: 287). 
CommentSynonymy partly after Denzer et al. 2020. 
Etymology 
References
  • Bleeker, P. 1860. [12. Reptilien van Boni]. Natuurkundl. Tijdschr. Nederl. Indie, Batavia 22: 81-85 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Casto de E. 1895. Catalogo sistematico de toda la fauna Filipinas conocida hasta al presente, y a la vez y el de la collection zoologico de Museo de PP. Dominicos del Colegio-Universidad de Sto.tomas de Manila. Vol. I. Vertebrados. Imprenta del Colegio de Sto. Tomas, Manila, 728 pp - get paper here
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp.
  • DENZER, WOLFGANG; PATRICK D. CAMPBELL, ULRICH MANTHEY, ANDREA GLÄSSER-TROBISCH, ANDRÉ KOCH 2020. Dragons in neglect: Taxonomic revision of the Sulawesi sailfin lizards of the genus Hydrosaurus Kaup, 1828 (Squamata, Agamidae). Zootaxa 4747 (2): 275–301 - get paper here
  • Weber, M. 1890. Reptilia from the Malay Archipelago. 1. Sauria, Crocodylidae, Chelonia. In: Zoologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in Niederländisch Ost-Indien 1: 158-177. M. Weber (Ed.). E. J. Brill, Leiden.
  • Wermuth, Heinz 1967. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien. Agamidae. Das Tierreich 86: 1-127
 
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