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Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus COPE, 1860

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesHypsiglena ochrorhynchus baueri (ZWEIFEL 1958)
Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus gularis (TANNER 1954)
Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus klauberi TANNER 1946
Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus martinensis (TANNER & BANTA 1962)
Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus nuchalata (TANNER 1943)
Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus ochrorhynchus COPE 1860
Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus tortugaensis TANNER 1946
Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus venusta (MOCQUARD 1899) 
Common Namesbaueri: Isla Cedros Nightsnake
gularis: Isla Partida Norte Nightsnake
klauberi: San Diego Nightsnake
martinensis: Isla San Martin Nightsnake
nuchalata: California Nightsnake
ochrorhyncha: Cape Nightsnake
venusta: Magdalena Nightsnake 
SynonymHypsiglena ochrorhynchus COPE 1860: 246
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha — COPE 1886: 285
Hypsiglena orchrorhynchus — STEJNEGER 1893: 204
Hypsiglena orchrorhynchus — TAYLOR 1938: 494 (in error)
Hypsiglena torquata ochrorhyncha — TANNER 1985
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha ochrorhyncha — MULCAHY 2008
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha — WALLACH et al. 2014: 343

Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus baueri (ZWEIFEL 1958)
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha baueri — MULCAHY 2008

Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus gularis TANNER 1954
Hypsiglena torquata gularis TANNER 1954: 54
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha gularis — MULCAHY 2008

Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus klauberi TANNER 1946
Hypsiglena torquata klauberi TANNER 1946: 71 (1944)
Hypsiglena torquata klauberi — ZWEIFEL 1958
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha klauberi — MULCAHY 2008
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha klauberi — GOMARD 2017

Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus martinensis (TANNER & BANTA 1962)
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha martinensis — MULCAHY 2008

Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus nuchalata (TANNER 1943)
Hypsiglena nuchalatus TANNER 1943: 53
Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus nuchalatus — TANNER 1946: 65 (1944)
Hypsiglena torquata nuchalata — CROTHER 2000: 63
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha nuchalata — MULCAHY 2008

Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus ochrorhynchus COPE 1860
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha ochrorhyncha — MULCAHY 2008

Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus tortugaensis TANNER 1946
Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus tortugaensis TANNER 1946: 69 (1944)
Hypsiglena torquata tortugaensis [sic] — LINER 1994
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha tortugaensis — MULCAHY 2018 (pers. comm.)

Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus venusta (MOCQUARD 1899)
Hypsiglena torquata venusta MOCQUARD 1899: 327
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha venusta — TANNER 1946: 67 (1944)
Hypsiglena torquata venusta — ZWEIFEL 1958
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha venusta — MULCAHY 2008 
DistributionUSA (N California west of the Sierra Nevada, south to San Diego, west of the peninsular ranges), Mexico (Baja California and surrounding islands)

baueri: Mexico (Cedros Island, Baja California)

gularis: Mexico (Isla Partida Norte)

klauberi: Mexico (N Baja California); USA (California); Type locality: “South Coronado Island, lower California”

nuchalata: California

ochrorhyncha: Mexico (Cape region of Baja California; probably Isla Salsipuedes); Type locality: Cape St. Lucas.

venusta: Mexico (S Baja California)  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: ANSP 3537-38, USNM 5283, MCZ R-9503
Holotype: MNHN-RA1896.0150 [venusta]
Holotype: BYU; paratypes: CAS, SDSNH 20233, 20293, 22501[nuchalata]
Holotype: SDNHM = SDSNH (was in Laurence M. Klauber’s private collection, LMK), paratypes: CAS [klauberi]
Holotype: CAS 51460, collected 1921 by Robert Slevin. Paratype: SDNHM = SDSNH (was in Laurence M. Klauber’s private collection, LMK) [tortugaensis]
Holotype: AMNH 77374, adult male, collected on March 1,1957,by Richard G. Zweifel [baueri]
Holotype: CAS 51009 [gularis] 
Diagnosis 
CommentSubspecies: Hypsiglena torquata gularis differs from other torquata in having one or more pairs of enlarged gular scales which resemble chinshields (TANNER 1954). Although this taxon was described on the basis of only two specimen GRISMER (1999) suggested to elevate it to full (evolutionary) species status because of these differences. MULCAHY (2008) assigned it to H. ochrorhyncha. Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha unaocularus (TANNER 1944) has been elevated to full species status.

Synonymy: Grismer 1999: 459 says that “Tanner (1944) described Hypsiglena torquata tortugensis [sic] on the basis of two specimens from Isla Tortuga. This population was differentiated from H. torquata of the adjacent peninsula by its elongate and narrow medial nape spot and high numbers of caudal scales (57-65; Tanner, 1966). An elongate, narrow, medial nape spot has been reported in H. torquata from central Baja California (Grismer et al., 1994:Fig. 18), and Mocquard (1899) reported a range of 47-58 caudal scales in H. torquata from central Baja California. Thus, H. t. tortugensis [sic] is not discretely diagnosable and is considered a junior synonym of H. torquata." Dan Mulcahy prefers to keep it as subspecies until more data becomes available (D. Mulcahy, pers. comm., 23 Aug 2018).

Type species: Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus COPE 1860: 246 is the type species of the genus Hypsiglena COPE 1860.

Distribution: see map of subspecies in Mulcahy et al. 2014. 
EtymologyGenus: The generic name was derived from the Greek words hypsi, meaning "vertical" and gleno, meaning pupil, in reference to the vertical pupil of members of this genus (LEMOS-ESPINAL & DIXON 2013).

The originally named of Cope (1860) was Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus. “It is clear that Cope intended ochrorhynchus (Gr: yellow nose) as a noun used in association with the feminine generic name Hypsiglena (Gr: high eye). Thus, the treatment of ochrorhynchus as an adjective is incorrect. The correct combination is Hypsiglena torquata ochrorhynchus.” (Frost & Collins 1988: 79) 
References
  • Cope, E.D. 1860. Catalogue of the Colubridae in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes and descriptions of new species. Part II. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 241-266 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Frost, D. R.;Collins, J. T. 1988. Nomenclatural notes on reptiles of the United States. Herpetological Review 19 (4): 73-74 - get paper here
  • Gomard, Guillaume 2017. In steinigen Wüsten: die Herpetofauna Südkaliforniens Terraria-Elaphe 2017 (6): 52-61 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Lee, Justin L.; Adrian Thompson, and Daniel G. Mulcahy 2016. Relationships between Numbers of Vertebrae, Scale Counts, and Body Size, with Implications for Taxonomy in Nightsnakes (Genus: Hypsiglena). Journal of Herpetology 50 (4): 616-620 - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Banta, Benjamin H. 1964. Midwinter reconnaissance of the herpetofauna of the Cape Region of Baja California, Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 30 (7): 127-156 - get paper here
  • Mahrdt, C R & Ayers, B M 2018. Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha (Coast Nightsnake) Diet Herpetological Review 49 (3): 548-549 - get paper here
  • Meik JM, Makowsky R. 2017. Minimum area thresholds for rattlesnakes and colubrid snakes on islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Ecol Evol. 2017;00:1–7 - get paper here
  • Mocquard, M.F. 1899. Contribution a la faune herpétologique de la Basse-Californie. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Natur.Paris, 4th Series, Vol. 1: 297-343 + plates XI-XIII - get paper here
  • Mulcahy DG, Martínez-Gómez JE, Aguirre-León G, Cervantes-Pasqualli JA, Zug GR 2014. Rediscovery of an Endemic Vertebrate from the Remote Islas Revillagigedo in the Eastern Pacific Ocean: The Clarión Nightsnake Lost and Found. PLoS One 9 (5): e97682. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097682 - get paper here
  • Mulcahy, Daniel G. 2008. Phylogeography and species boundaries of the western North American Nightsnake (Hypsiglena torquata): Revisiting the subspecies concept. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46 (3): 1095-1115 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, L.H. 1893. Annotated list of the reptiles and batrachians collected by the Death Valley Expedition in 1891, with descriptions of new species. North American Fauna, No. 7: 159-228 (+ 14 plates + 4 maps) - get paper here
  • Tanner, W. W. 1946. A taxonomic study of the genus Hypsiglena. Great Basin Naturalist 5 (3-4): 25-92 [1944] - get paper here
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1943. Two new species of Hypsiglena from western North America. Great Basin Naturalist 4 (1-2): 49-54 - get paper here
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1954. Additional note on the genus Hypsiglena with a descriptionof a new subspecies. Herpetologica 10: 54-56 - get paper here
  • Tanner, Wilmer W.; Banta, Benjamin H. 1962. Description of a new Hypsiglena from San Martín Island, México, with a resumé of the reptile fauna of the island. Herpetologica 18 (1): 21-25 - get paper here
  • Taylor, Edward Harrison 1938. Notes on the herpetological fauna of the Mexican state of Sonora. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 24 (19): 475-503 [1936] - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh, John 1906. On the occurrence of the spotted night snake, Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus in central California; and on the shape of the pupil in the reptilian genus Arizona. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. ser. 3, 4(5):65-67 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zweifel, Richard G. 1958. Results of the Puritan-American Museum of Natural History Expedition to western Mexico 2. Notes on reptiles and amphibians from the Pacific Coastal Islands of Baja California. American Museum Novitates (1895): 1-17 - get paper here
 
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