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Hypsirhynchus parvifrons (COPE, 1862)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Alsophiini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesHypsirhynchus parvifrons parvifrons (COPE 1862)
Hypsirhynchus parvifrons alleni (DUNN 1920)
Hypsirhynchus parvifrons lincolni (COCHRAN 1941)
Hypsirhynchus parvifrons niger (DUNN 1920)
Hypsirhynchus parvifrons paraniger (THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1965)
Hypsirhynchus parvifrons protenus (JAN 1867)
Hypsirhynchus parvifrons rosamondae (COCHRAN 1934)
Hypsirhynchus parvifrons stygius (THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1965)
Hypsirhynchus parvifrons tortuganus (DUNN 1920) 
Common NamesCope's Antilles Snake, Hispaniolan black racer 
SynonymDromicus parvifrons COPE 1862: 79
Dromicus parvifrons — COPE 1879: 273
Leptophis frenatus FISCHER 1883: 8
Dromicus parvifrons — GARMAN 1887: 282
Dromicus parvifrons — FISCHER 1888: 40
Antillophis parvifrons —  MAGLIO 1970
Antillophis parvifrons - SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 580
Antillophis parvifrons — ZAHER et al. 2009
Hypsirhynchus parvifrons — HEDGES et al. 2009
Antillophis parvifrons — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Antillophis parvifrons — WALLACH et al. 2014: 45

Hypsirhynchus parvifrons alleni (DUNN 1920)
Leimadophis alleni DUNN 1920
Hypsirhynchus parvifrons alleni — HEDGES et al. 2009

Hypsirhynchus parvifrons lincolni (COCHRAN 1941)
Leimadophis parvifrons lincolni COCHRAN 1941
Hypsirhynchus parvifrons lincolni — HEDGES et al. 2009

Hypsirhynchus parvifrons niger (DUNN 1920)
Leimadophis parvifrons niger DUNN 1920
Hypsirhynchus parvifrons niger — HEDGES et al. 2009

Hypsirhynchus parvifrons paraniger (THOMAS and SCHWARTZ 1965)
Dromicus parvifrons paraniger THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1965
Hypsirhynchus parvifrons paraniger — HEDGES et al. 2009

Hypsirhynchus parvifrons protenus (JAN 1867)
Dromicus protenus JAN 1863 9nom. nud.)
Dromicus protenus JAN 1867
Leimadophis parvifrons protenus — DUNN 1920: 38
Antillophis parvifrons protenus — HEDGES et al. 2009

Hypsirhynchus parvifrons rosamondae (COCHRAN 1934)
Dromicus parvifrons rosamondae COCHRAN 1934: 186
Hypsirhynchus parvifrons rosamondae — HEDGES et al. 2009

Hypsirhynchus parvifrons stygius (THOMAS and SCHWARTZ 1965)
Dromicus parvifrons stygius THOMAS & SCHWARTZ 1965
Hypsirhynchus parvifrons stygius — HEDGES et al. 2009

Antillophis parvifrons tortuganus (DUNN 1920)
Leimadophis tortuganus DUNN 1920
Hypsirhynchus parvifrons tortuganus — HEDGES et al. 2009 
DistributionHispaniola (Haiti, Dominican Republic), Bahamas, Little Inagua

parvifrons: Hispaniola: Haiti; the Tiburon Peninsula; Île Grande Cayemite; Grosse Caye; intergrades with A. p. protenus. Type locality: Near Jérémie, Département de la Grand'Anse, Haiti.

alleni: Île de la Gonâve, Île Petite Gonâve.

lincolni: Isla Beata and Peninsula de Barahona south of Sierra de Baoruco, República Dominicana; intergrades with A. p. protenus.

niger: Peninsula de Samana, República Dominicana.

paraniger: Southeastern República Dominicana; Isla Catalina; intergrades with A. p. protenus.

protenus: Throughout Hispaniola, except for distributions of mainland subspecies parvifrons, lincolni, niger, and paraniger.

rosamondae: Île-à-Vache. Etymology: named after Mrs. Thomas Barbour.

stygius: Isla Saona.

tortuganus: Île de la Tortue. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: MCZ 3344, MCZ 3602
Holotype: MCZ 12861 [alleni]
Holotype: USNM 83890 [lincolni]
Holotype: MCZ 7833 [niger]
Holotype: MCZ 77227 [paraniger]
Holotype: unlocated [protenus]
Holotype: MCZ 37668 [rosamondae]
Holotype: MCZ 77228 [stygius]
Holotype: USNM 59440 [tortuganus] 
CommentFor illustrations see Cochran, 1941; Thomas and Schwartz, 1965; Sajdak and Henderson, 1982.

Type species: Dromicus parvifrons COPE 1862 is the type species of the genus Antillophis MAGLIO 1970, which has been considered as a synonym of Hypsirhynchus (type species: Hypsirhynchus ferox GÜNTHER 1858) by HEDGES et al. 2009. However, GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012 resurrected Antillophis as a monotypic genus. See Fig. 2 in GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012 for phylogenetic relationships between Hypsirhynchus s.str., Antillophis, and Schwartzophis (all of which are included in Hypsirhynchus here).

Diagnosis (genus Antillophis): Asulcate surfaces of hemipenial lobes completely nude except for a row of two to three enlarged papillae aligned vertically on the lobular crotch and proximal region of the lobes; hemipenes long and slender (hemipenial body at least 4–5 length of lobes) [GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012]. 
References
  • Cochran, D. M. 1934. Herpetological collections made in Hispaniola by the Utowana Expedition. Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 8: 163-188 - get paper here
  • Cochran, D.M. 1941. The herpetology of Hispaniola. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 177: vii + 398 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1863. Synopsis of the species of Holcosus and Ameiva, with diagnoses of new West Indian and South American Colubridae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14 [1862]: 60-82. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1879. Eleventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 18: 261-277. - get paper here
  • Dunn, E.R. 1920. On the Haitian snakes of the genera Leimadophis and Uromacer. Proc. New England Zool. Club 7: 37-44 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J.G. 1888. Über eine Kollektion Reptilien und Amphibien von Hayti. Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 5: 23-45. - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286. - get paper here
  • Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x - get paper here
  • Hedges, S. Blair; Arnaud Couloux; Vidal, Nicolas 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of West Indian racer snakes of the Tribe Alsophiini (Squamata, Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae). Zootaxa 2067: 1-28 - get paper here
  • Maglio, Vincent J. 1970. West Indian Xenodontine colubrid snakes: Their probable origin, phylogeny, and zoogeography. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 141 (1): 1-54 - get paper here
  • Sajdak, R.A., and Henderson, R.W. 1982. Notes on the eggs and young of Antillophis parvifrons stygius (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae). Florida Scientist 45(3): 200-4. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Thomas, R. and Schwartz, A. 1965. Hispaniolan snakes of the genus Dromicus (Colubridae). Revista de Biologia Tropical 13 (1):58-83. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe Gobbi; Cadle, John E.; Murphy, Robert W.; Moura-Leite, Julio Cesar de; Bonatto, Sandro L 2009. Molecular phylogeny of advanced snakes (Serpentes, Caenophidia) with an emphasis on South American Xenodontines: a revised classification and descriptions of new taxa. Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) 49 (11): 115-153 - get paper here
 
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