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Lacerta viridis (LAURENTI, 1768)

IUCN Red List - Lacerta viridis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Lacertinae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesLacerta viridis guentherpetersi RYKENA, NETTMANN & MAYER 2001
Lacerta viridis meridionalis CYRÉN 1933
Lacerta viridis viridis (LAURENTI 1768) 
Common NamesE: European Green Lizard, Eastern Green Lizard
G: Smaragdeidechse
Croatian: zelembać
Italian: ramarro orientale 
SynonymSeps viridis LAURENTI 1768: 62 (nomen protectum)
Lacerta varia (LAURENTI 1768) (nomen oblitum)
Lacerta viridis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 210
Lacerta viridis var. mento-coerulea BONAPARTE 1836
Lacerta viridis var. cinero-nigrescens DE BETTA 1853
Lacerta viridis var. vulgaris MASSOLONGO 1853
Lacerta viridis var. variegata MASSOLONGO 1853
Lacerta viridis var. concolor DE BETTA 1857
Lacerta viridis var. versicolor DE BETTA 1857
Lacerta viridis var. brunneo-viridescens DE BETTA 1857
Lacerta viridis — CALORI 1858: 345
Lacerta viridis var. nigra SCHREIBER 1875
Lacerta viridis war. punctata SCHREIBER 1875
Lacerta viridis var. radiata SCHREIBER 1875
Lacerta viridis var. variolata SCHREIBER 1875
Lacerta viridis var. transsylvanica KIMAKOVIC 1888
Lacerta viridis var. flavescens WERNER 1897
Lacerta viridis var. similis WERNER 1897
Lacerta viridis var. holomelas WERNER 1897
Lacerta viridis var. istriensis WERNER 1897
Lacerta viridis var. intermedia MEHELY 1905
Lacerta viridis var. fejervaryi VASVARY 1926
Lacerta viridis brandenburgensis HECHT 1930
Lacerta viridis udicarsica TADDEI 1950: 209
Lacerta bilineata chloroprima TADDEI 1950: 206
Lacerta viridis tiberina TADDEI 1950: 210
Lacerta viridis cisalpina TADDEI 1950: 213
Lacerta viridis italica TADDEI 1950: 214
Lacerta viridis — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Lacerta viridis bilineata — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Lacerta viridis — SPEYBROECK et al. 2020

Lacerta viridis viridis (LAURENTI 1768)
Lacerta viridis var. istriensis WERNER 1897
Lacerta viridis brandenburgiensis HECHT 1930
Lacerta viridis viridis — WERNER 1935: 91
Lacerta viridis viridis — BAUER & GÜNTHER 1995
Lacerta viridis viridis — SAGONAS et al. 2014

Lacerta viridis guentherpetersi RYKENA, NETTMANN & MAYER 2001
Lacerta viridis guentherpetersi — BÖHME et al. 2007
Lacerta viridis guentherpetersi — SAGONAS et al. 2014
Lacerta viridis guentherpetersi — MARZAHN et al. 2016

Lacerta viridis meridionalis CYRÉN 1933
Lacerta viridis var. meridionalis CYRÉN 1933: 231
Lacerta viridis meridionalis — THIEME 1985
Lacerta viridis infrapunctata SCHMIDTLER 1986
Lacerta viridis paphlagonica SCHMIDTLER 1986
Lacerta viridis meridionalis — ÇEVIK & KUMLUTAS 1999
Lacerta viridis meridionalis — ÇEVIK 1999
Lacerta viridis meridionalis — SCHLÜTER 2003
Lacerta viridis meridionalis — TRAPP 2005
Lacerta viridis meridionalis — SAGONAS et al. 2014
Lacerta viridis meridionalis — MARZAHN et al. 2016
Lacerta viridis meridionalis — CATTANEO 2017 
DistributionAustria (Kärnten, Steiermark, Burgenland, Nieder-Österreich, Ober-Österreich), Poland, S Switzerland, E Germany (Danube river, Brandenburg etc.), Czech Republic (formerly Czechoslovakia), Balkan Peninsula incl. Slovenia, Croatia, islands Cres and Trstenik, Slovakia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Italy, France, N Spain,
Turkey (eastern coast of the Black Sea and central coast of Black Sea), European Turkey (including region of Marmara Sea), E Romania, E Bulgaria, NE Greece (incl. Samothraki), Moldova, Albania, SW Ukraine

guentherpetersi: Greece (Dirfis Mountains, Euboea Island)

infrapunctata: NE Turkey; Type locality: Küste E Esbiye, Prov. Giresun, Türkei;

meridionalis: NW Turkey, S Romania, Greece (incl. Corfu);
Type locality: restricted to Adapazarı, Turkey by Mertens and Müller, 1940.

paphlagonica: CN Turkey; Type locality: Platanen-Auwald bei Kabala, SO Sinop, 50 m, Prov. Sinop, Türkei”

Type locality: Vienna, Austria  
TypesHolotype: unlocated
Holotype: NMW; Paratypes in ZFMK, NMW, MTD (= MTKD) and ZMB [guentherpetersi]
Syntypes: NMW 10835 (m.) Istrien [istriensis]
Holotype: NMW, paratype: ZSM [infrapunctata]
Syntypes: GNM 4568-4585 (21) (Göteborg Museum) Bӧjükderé, europ. Turkey, May 1907, April 1914. Bith. Olympus, Asia Minor, June 1927, Brussa June 1927, Adapazar, May 1930, Yalova, June 1930, Küprije-Vasiliko (Strandja Planina), Bulgaria, May 1931, Coll. O. Cyrén. [meridionalis]
Holotype: ZSM, paratypes: ZFMK, ZSM [paphlagonica] 
CommentSynonymy partly after KHALIKOV & ANANJEVA (pers. comm.), TIEDEMANN et al. 1994 and Nettmann & Rykena 1984: 147 who list a number of subspecies und L. virdis (also included in the synonymy above) but do not explicitly comment on their status or synonymy. Lacerta viridis magnifica SOBOLEVSKY 1930 has been removed rom the synonymy of L. viridis and synonymized with L. bilineata by Kehlmaier et al 2019. The name Lacerta viridis was challenged by a homonym, Lacertus viridis GARSAULT 1764 and thus designated a nomen protectum (Denzer et al. 2020).

Subspecies: Lacerta viridis paphlagonica SCHMIDTLER 1986 and L. v. infrapunctata SCHMIDTLER 1986 are not supported by BÖHME et al. (2007) and may be synonyms of guentherpetersi (ARIKAN et al. 1999). In fact, Marzahn et al. 2016 confirmed that Lacerta v. infrapunctata and L. v. paphlagonica are synonyms of L. v. meridionalis. Lacerta viridis var. holomelas WERNER 1897 and L. v. nigra, and L. v. melanota may be synonyms (listed in TIDEMANN & GRILLITSCH 1999 as syntypes in NMW). The status of Lacerta viridis var. istriensis and Lacerta viridis var. intermedia remains unclear (Marzahn et al. 2016).
The situation of Lacerta viridis meridionalis is not yet clarified in accordance with the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - a lectotype or a neotype should be designated. Marzahn et al. (2016) showed complexity with the systematics of this (sub-) species.

Hybridization: RYKENA & HENKE (1978) report hybrids between L. viridis and L. agilis.

Distribution: The (introduced) American population of L. viridis has been assigned to L. bilineata. See SEH map (linked). Reports from the UK (channel islands) are now referred to L. bilineata.

A melanistic specimen has been reported from Dalmatia [Boulenger 1913, P.Z.S., p 546]. 
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