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Lampropeltis micropholis COPE, 1860

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Ecuadorian Milksnake
S: Falsa coral interandina 
SynonymLampropeltis micropholis COPE 1860: 258
Coronella micropholis — BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 152
Lampropeltis triangulum gaigeae DUNN 1937: 9
Lampropeltis triangulum gaigae — BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1946 (in error)
Lampropeltis doliata gaigeae — TAYLOR 1951: 104
Lampropeltis doliata gaigeae — SMITH 1958: 223
Lampropeltis doliata micropholis — PETERS 1960
Lampropeltis triangulum micropholis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Lampropeltis triangulum andesiana WILLIAMS 1978: 231
Lampropeltis triangulum andesiana — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis triagulum gaigae — FRANK 1994: 22 (in error)
Lampropeltis triangulum andesiana — BARRIO & NAVARRETE 1999
Lampropeltis triangulum micropholis — KORNACKER 1999: 93
Lampropeltis triangulum micropholis — CARRERA et al. 2009
Lampropeltis triangulum micropholis — GABIROT et al. 2012
Lampropeltis triangulum gaigeae — LILLYWHITE 2014: 133
Lampropeltis micropholis — RUANE et al. 2014
Lampropeltis andesiana — NATERA-MUMAW et al. 2015: 73 
DistributionE Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador; possibly Venezuela

formerly recognized subspecies of L. triangulum now included in L. micropholis:

andesiana: Huila (Colombia), Venezuela (Tachira, Mérida) [HR 30: 174]); Type locality,"the hills near Cali, Valle, Colombia."

gaigae: mountains in Costa Rica, Panamá; Type locality: Chiriqui, Boquete, Panama.

micropholis: Costa Rica, Panamá, Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador; Type locality: Panama.  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: ANSP 3427 (micropholis)
Holotype: USNM 151732 [andesiana]
Holotype: UMMZ 57967, adult male collected 24 March 1924 by H.T. Gaige [gaigae] 
CommentSynonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970, WILLIAMS 1994, and RUANE et al. 2014. Listed as synonym of Lampropeltis triangulum by WALLACH et al. 2014: 359.

Distribution: The occurrence of Lampropeltis triangulum in Venezuela was reported by Roze (1966) and subsequent workers (Lancini 1979; Kornacker 1999) as the subspecies L. t. micropholis. Barrio and Navarrete (1999) clarified the subspecies identity of the Venezuelan specimens and considered them to belong to L. t. andesiana [cited after RIVAS et al. 2012].

Mimicry: Lampropeltis triangulum mimicks Micrurus bernadi, M. limbatus and M. diastema (TORRE-LORANCA et al. 2006).

Similar species: Erythrolamprus bizona; see also mimicry with Micrurus. 
EtymologyThe name microphol$ is derived from the Greek mikros, meaning "small," and the Greek pholis, meaning "scale", apparently in reference to the small dorsal scales of this form.

The name gaigeae is a patronym honoring Helen T. Gaige, who collected the type.

The name andesiana is derived from the word Andes, in reference to the mountains in which the form occurs, plus the collective plural suffix -iana. 
References
  • Barbour, T., and L. J. Cole. 1906. Vertebrata from Yucatan. Reptilia, Amphibia and Pisces. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 50: 146-159 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas & Loveridge, Arthur 1946. First supplement to typical reptiles and amphibians. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 96 (2): 59-214. - get paper here
  • Carrera, C. et al. 2009. Guía de Campo de los Pequeños Vertebrados del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito (DMQ). Publicación Miscelánea N° 5. Serie de Publicaciones del Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (MECN) – Fondo Ambiental del MDMQ. 1-89 pp. Imprenta Nuevo Arte. Quito-Ecuador.
  • Cope, E.D. 1860. Catalogue of the Colubridae in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes and descriptions of new species. Part II. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 241-266 - get paper here
  • Dunn, Emmett Reid 1937. Notes on tropical Lampropeltis. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (353): 1-11
  • Frank, N. 1994. The American Milk Snake Lampropeltis triangulum. Reptile & Amphibian Mag. (30): 20-33
  • Gabirot, Marianne; Pablo Picerno, Jorge Valencia, Pilar Lopez, and José Martin 2012. Species Recognition by Chemical Cues in Neotropical Snakes. Copeia 2012 (3): 472-477. - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
  • Peters , J. A. 1960. The snakes of Ecuador; check list and key. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 122: 489-541 - get paper here
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Part II Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Ruane, Sara; Robert W. Bryson, Jr., R. Alexander Pyron, and Frank T. Burbrink 2014. Coalescent Species Delimitation in Milksnakes (genus Lampropeltis) and Impacts on Phylogenetic Comparative Analyses. Systematic Biology 63 (2): 231-250, doi:10.1093/sysbio/syt099 - get paper here
  • Smith,H.M. 1958. Handlist of the snakes of Panamá. Herpetologica 14: 222-224. - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1951. A brief review ot the snakes of Costa Rica. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 34 (1): 3-188 - get paper here
  • Williams K L 1994. Lampropeltis triangulum (Lacepede), milk snake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 594: 1-10 - get paper here
  • Williams, K. L. 1988. Systematics and natural history of the American milk snake Lampropeltis triangulum. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Publ. Biol. Geol. No. 2, 258 pp. - get paper here
 
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