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Laticauda semifasciata (REINWARDT, 1837)

IUCN Red List - Laticauda semifasciata - Near Threatened, NT

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Laticaudinae), Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesChinese Sea Snake 
SynonymPlaturus semifasciatus REINWARDT in SCHLEGEL 1837: 516
Platurus fasciatus var. semifasciata — FISCHER 1856: 30
Platurus fasciatus var. — HALLOWELL 1861: 489
Laticauda semifasciata — STEJNEGER 1907: 409
Laticauda semifasciata — MERTENS 1930
Laticauda semifasciata — WELCH 1994: 71
Pseudolaticauda semifasciata — KHARIN 2005
Laticauda semifasciata — RASMUSSEN et al. 2011
Laticauda semifasciata — WANG e al. 2013
Pseudolaticauda semifasciata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 592 
DistributionSouth Chinese Sea (coasts of Fujian, Liaoning, Taiwan; China), Korea,
Philippines, Japan (Ryukyu), Taiwan, Indonesia, Philippine and Moluccas Islands, West Pacific Ocean from Japan in the north to Samoa islands in the south. Found in Russia once: in waters of the Far East Maritime Reserve (the Sea of Japan's Peter the Great Bay; KHALIKOV, pers. comm.).

Type locality: Moluccas Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: RMNH 1468 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: STEJNEGER 1907 synonymized Platurus (Laticauda) schistorhynchus with Laticauda semifasciata.

Similar species: Hydrophis melanocephalus; has been confused with this species in Korean waters (Kim et al. 2016).

Diagnosis. Ventrals 195 – 205. Subcaudals 38 – 43 pairs (males) and 32 – 36 pairs (females). 21 – 23 scale rows on neck and body. Number of body vertebrae
206 – 215, number of tail vertebrae 44 – 49. Snout-vent length 805 (males) and 1190 mm (females). Tail length 115 (males) and 115 mm (females).

Habitat: marine.

Type species: Platurus semifasciatus REINWARDT in SCHLEGEL 1837: 516 is the type species of the genus Pseudolaticauda KHARIN 1984.

Distribution: See map in Gherghel et al. 2016. 
References
  • Dunson, William A.;Minton, Sherman A. 1978. Diversity, distribution, and Ecology of Philippine Marine Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Journal of Herpetology 12 (3): 281-286 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J.G. 1856. Die Familie der Seeschlangen. Abhandl. Nat. Ver. Hamburg 3: 1-78
  • Gherghel I, Papeş M, Brischoux F, Sahlean T, Strugariu A 2016. A revision of the distribution of sea kraits (Reptilia, Laticauda) with an updated occurrence dataset for ecological and conservation research. ZooKeys 569: 135-148, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.569.6975 - get paper here
  • Goris, R.C. & Maeda, N. 2004. Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Japan. Krieger, Malabar, 285 pp.
  • Hallowell, E. 1861. Report upon the Reptilia of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under command of Capt. John Rogers, U. S. N. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12 [1860]: 480 - 510 - get paper here
  • Herre, Albert W. C. T. 1942. Notes on Philippine sea-snakes. Copeia 1942 (1): 7-9 - get paper here
  • Herre, Albert W. C. T.;Rabor, D. S. 1949. Notes on Philippine sea snakes of the genus Laticauda. Copeia 1949 (4): 282-284 - get paper here
  • Kharin V E 1984. Revision of sea snakes of subfamily Laticaudinae Cope, 1879 sensu lato (Serpentes, Hydrophiidae). TRUDY ZOOLOGICHESKOGO INSTITUTA 124: 128-139
  • Kharin V E 2011. Annotated catalogue of amphibians and reptiles (Amphibia, Reptilia) of the Far-Eastern Marine Biosphere FEB RAS [in Russian]. Biodiversity and Environment of Far East Reserves, Vladivostok, DVMBGPZ DVO RAN 2011 (1): 30-48
  • Kharin, V.E. 2008. Biota of the Russian Waters of the Sea of Japan Vol. 7 - Reptilians [in English and Russian]. Vladivostok, Dalnauka, 170 pp.
  • Kharin, V.E. 2009. Redescription of a Russian Finding of the Erabu Sea Krait Pseudolaticauda semifasciata (Reinwardt in Schlegel, 1837), with Remarks about Species Composition of Sea Snakes (Serpentes: Laticaudidae, Hydrophiidae) in Russian and Adjacent Waters. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 35 (1): 8–14
  • Kharin, V.E. & Hallermann, J. 2009. Distribution of a Little-Known Sea Krait Pseudolaticauda schistorhynchus (Günther, 1874) (Serpentes: Laticaudidae). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 35 (5): 437–440.
  • Kharin, Vladimir E. and Vladimir P. Czeblukov 2006. A New Revision of Sea Kraits of Family Laticaudidae Cope, 1879 (Serpentes: Colubroidea). Russ. J. Herpetol. 13 (3): 227-241
  • Kharin, Vladimir E.; Jakob Hallermann 2009. Annotated catalogue of sea kraits (Laticaudidae) and sea snakes (Hydrophiidae) of the herpetological collection of the Zoological Museum, University of Hamburg. Mitt. hamb. zool. Mus. Inst. 106: 51-67
  • Kim, IH., Park, J., Kaplan, R.H. et al. 2016. Chinese sea snake (Laticauda semifasciata) misidentified as slender-necked sea snake in previous published account in Korea. J Ecology Environ (2016) 40: 1. doi:10.1186/s41610-016-0002-3 - get paper here
  • Lillywhite, Harvey B. 2014. How Snakes Work: Structure, Function and Behavior of the World's Snakes. Oxford University Press, New York, 256 pp
  • Mertens, R. 1930. Die Amphibien und Reptilien der Inseln Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa und Flores. Senck. Naturf. Gesell., Frankfurt am Main, Abhandl. 42(3): 117-344.
  • Mori,M. 1982. Japans Schlangen, Vols. 1-3 (80, 102, 123 pp.). Tokyo (Igaku-Shoin Ltd.) [bilingual edition in German and Japanese]
  • Park, Jaejin; Il-Hun Kim, Kyo-Sung Koo, Daesik Park 2016. First Record of Laticauda semifasciata (Reptilia: Squamata: Elapidae: Laticaudinae) from Korea Anim. Syst. Evol. Divers. 32 (2): 148-152 - get paper here
  • RASMUSSEN, ARNE REDSTED; JOHAN ELMBERG, PETER GRAVLUND & IVAN INEICH 2011. Sea snakes (Serpentes: subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae) in Vietnam: a comprehensive checklist and an updated identification key. Zootaxa 2894: 1–20 - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1837. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Partie Descriptive. La Haye (J. Kips, J. HZ. et W. P. van Stockum), 606 S. + xvi - get paper here
  • Stejneger, L. 1910. The batrachians and reptiles of Formosa. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 38: 91-114 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • Tandavanitj, Nontivich; Hidetoshi Ota, Yuan-Cheng Cheng, and Mamoru Toda 2013. Geographic Genetic Structure in Two Laticaudine Sea Kraits, Laticauda laticaudata and Laticauda semifasciata (Serpentes: Elapidae), in the Ryukyu-Taiwan Region as Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Sequences. Zoological Science Vol. 30, No. 8: 633-641. - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh, John 1924. On Laticauda schistorhynchus and Laticauda semifasciata. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 13 (16) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang, S.; H. B. Lillywhite, Y. C. Cheng and M. C. Tu 2013. Variation of traits and habitat use in three species of sea kraits in Taiwan. J. Zool. 290 (1): 19–26, DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12012 - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
 
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