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Laticauda semifasciata (REINWARDT, 1837)

IUCN Red List - Laticauda semifasciata - Near Threatened, NT

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Laticaudinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Chinese Sea Snake
Russian: Большой морской крайт
Chinese: 半环扁尾海蛇 
SynonymPlaturus semifasciatus REINWARDT in SCHLEGEL 1837: 516
Platurus fasciatus var. semifasciata — FISCHER 1856: 30
Platurus fasciatus var. — HALLOWELL 1861: 489
Laticauda semifasciata — STEJNEGER 1907: 409
Laticauda semifasciata — MERTENS 1930
Laticauda semifasciata — WELCH 1994: 71
Pseudolaticauda semifasciata — KHARIN 2005
Laticauda semifasciata — RASMUSSEN et al. 2011
Laticauda semifasciata — WANG e al. 2013
Pseudolaticauda semifasciata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 592 
DistributionSouth Chinese Sea (coasts of Fujian, Liaoning, Taiwan; China), South Korea,
Philippines, Japan (Ryukyu), Taiwan, Indonesia, Philippine and Moluccas Islands, West Pacific Ocean from Japan in the north to Samoa islands in the south. Found in Russia once: in waters of the Far East Maritime Reserve (the Sea of Japan's Peter the Great Bay; KHALIKOV, pers. comm.).

Type locality: Moluccas  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: RMNH 1468 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Ventrals 195 – 205. Subcaudals 38 – 43 pairs (males) and 32 – 36 pairs (females). 21 – 23 scale rows on neck and body. Number of body vertebrae 206 – 215, number of tail vertebrae 44 – 49. Snout-vent length 805 (males) and 1190 mm (females). Tail length 115 (males) and 115 mm (females).
 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: STEJNEGER 1907 synonymized Platurus (Laticauda) schistorhynchus with Laticauda semifasciata.

Similar species: Hydrophis melanocephalus; has been confused with this species in Korean waters (Kim et al. 2016).

Habitat: marine.

Type species: Platurus semifasciatus REINWARDT in SCHLEGEL 1837: 516 is the type species of the genus Pseudolaticauda KHARIN 1984.

Distribution: See maps in Gherghel et al. 2016, Heatwole et al. 2017. 
Etymology 
References
  • Dunson, William A.;Minton, Sherman A. 1978. Diversity, distribution, and Ecology of Philippine Marine Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Journal of Herpetology 12 (3): 281-286 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J.G. 1856. Die Familie der Seeschlangen. Abhandl. Nat. Ver. Hamburg 3: 1-78
  • Gherghel I, Papeş M, Brischoux F, Sahlean T, Strugariu A 2016. A revision of the distribution of sea kraits (Reptilia, Laticauda) with an updated occurrence dataset for ecological and conservation research. ZooKeys 569: 135-148, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.569.6975 - get paper here
  • Goris, R.C. & Maeda, N. 2004. Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Japan. Krieger, Malabar, 285 pp.
  • Hallowell, E. 1861. Report upon the Reptilia of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under command of Capt. John Rogers, U. S. N. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12 [1860]: 480 - 510 - get paper here
  • Heatwole, Harold; Alana Grech, and Helene Marsh 2017. Paleoclimatology, Paleogeography, and the Evolution and Distribution of Sea Kraits (Serpentes; Elapidae; Laticauda). Herpetological Monographs 31 (1): 1-17. - get paper here
  • Herre, Albert W. C. T. 1942. Notes on Philippine sea-snakes. Copeia 1942 (1): 7-9 - get paper here
  • Herre, Albert W. C. T.;Rabor, D. S. 1949. Notes on Philippine sea snakes of the genus Laticauda. Copeia 1949 (4): 282-284 - get paper here
  • Kharin V E 1984. Revision of sea snakes of subfamily Laticaudinae Cope, 1879 sensu lato (Serpentes, Hydrophiidae). TRUDY ZOOLOGICHESKOGO INSTITUTA 124: 128-139
  • Kharin V E 2011. Annotated catalogue of amphibians and reptiles (Amphibia, Reptilia) of the Far-Eastern Marine Biosphere FEB RAS [in Russian]. Biodiversity and Environment of Far East Reserves, Vladivostok, DVMBGPZ DVO RAN 2011 (1): 30-48
  • Kharin, V.E. 2008. Biota of the Russian Waters of the Sea of Japan Vol. 7 - Reptilians [in English and Russian]. Vladivostok, Dalnauka, 170 pp.
  • Kharin, V.E. 2009. Redescription of a Russian Finding of the Erabu Sea Krait Pseudolaticauda semifasciata (Reinwardt in Schlegel, 1837), with Remarks about Species Composition of Sea Snakes (Serpentes: Laticaudidae, Hydrophiidae) in Russian and Adjacent Waters. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 35 (1): 8–14
  • Kharin, V.E. & Hallermann, J. 2009. Distribution of a Little-Known Sea Krait Pseudolaticauda schistorhynchus (Günther, 1874) (Serpentes: Laticaudidae). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 35 (5): 437–440.
  • Kharin, Vladimir E. and Vladimir P. Czeblukov 2006. A New Revision of Sea Kraits of Family Laticaudidae Cope, 1879 (Serpentes: Colubroidea). Russ. J. Herpetol. 13 (3): 227-241
  • Kharin, Vladimir E.; Jakob Hallermann 2009. Annotated catalogue of sea kraits (Laticaudidae) and sea snakes (Hydrophiidae) of the herpetological collection of the Zoological Museum, University of Hamburg. Mitt. hamb. zool. Mus. Inst. 106: 51-67
  • Kim, IH., Park, J., Kaplan, R.H. et al. 2016. Chinese sea snake (Laticauda semifasciata) misidentified as slender-necked sea snake in previous published account in Korea. J Ecology Environ (2016) 40: 1. doi:10.1186/s41610-016-0002-3 - get paper here
  • Knop, Daniel 2017. Unterwasserfotos und -videos für Einsteiger. Terraria-Elaphe 2017 (3): 36-44 - get paper here
  • Leviton, A.E., R.M. Brown, and C.D. Siler. 2014. The dangerously venomous snakes of the Philippine Archipelago. in The Coral Triangle: The 2011 Hearst Biodiversity Philippine Expedition (G.C. Williams and T.M. Gosliner, eds.). California Academy of Sciences, USA, Pp 473–530
  • Lillywhite, Harvey B. 2014. How Snakes Work: Structure, Function and Behavior of the World's Snakes. Oxford University Press, New York, 256 pp
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  • Mertens, R. 1930. Die Amphibien und Reptilien der Inseln Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa und Flores. Senck. Naturf. Gesell., Frankfurt am Main, Abhandl. 42(3): 117-344.
  • Mori,M. 1982. Japans Schlangen, Vols. 1-3 (80, 102, 123 pp.). Tokyo (Igaku-Shoin Ltd.) [bilingual edition in German and Japanese]
  • Park J, Kim I-H, Fong JJ, Koo K-S, Choi W-J, Tsai T-S, et al. 2017. Northward dispersal of sea kraits (Laticauda semifasciata) beyond their typical range. PLoS One 12 (6): e0179871. - get paper here
  • Park, Jaejin; Il-Hun Kim, Kyo-Sung Koo, Daesik Park 2016. First Record of Laticauda semifasciata (Reptilia: Squamata: Elapidae: Laticaudinae) from Korea. Anim. Syst. Evol. Divers. 32 (2): 148-152 - get paper here
  • RASMUSSEN, ARNE REDSTED; JOHAN ELMBERG, PETER GRAVLUND & IVAN INEICH 2011. Sea snakes (Serpentes: subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae) in Vietnam: a comprehensive checklist and an updated identification key. Zootaxa 2894: 1–20 - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1837. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Partie Descriptive. La Haye (J. Kips, J. HZ. et W. P. van Stockum), 606 S. + xvi - get paper here
  • Stejneger, L. 1910. The batrachians and reptiles of Formosa. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 38: 91-114 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • Tabata, Runa; Fumihito Tashiro, Hideaki Nishizawa, Junichi Takagi, Noriko Kidera and Hiromichi Mitamura 2017. Stomach Contents of Three Sea Kraits (Hydrophiinae: Laticauda spp.) in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan Stomach Contents of Three Sea Kraits (Hydrophiinae: Laticauda spp.) in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Current Herpetology Aug 2017, Vol. 36, No. 2: 127-134. - get paper here
  • Tandavanitj, Nontivich; Hidetoshi Ota, Yuan-Cheng Cheng, and Mamoru Toda 2013. Geographic Genetic Structure in Two Laticaudine Sea Kraits, Laticauda laticaudata and Laticauda semifasciata (Serpentes: Elapidae), in the Ryukyu-Taiwan Region as Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Sequences. Zoological Science Vol. 30, No. 8: 633-641. - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh, John 1924. On Laticauda schistorhynchus and Laticauda semifasciata. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 13 (16) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Wang, S.; H. B. Lillywhite, Y. C. Cheng and M. C. Tu 2013. Variation of traits and habitat use in three species of sea kraits in Taiwan. Journal of Zoology 290 (1): 19–26, DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12012 - get paper here
  • Weinell, Jeffrey L.; Errol Hooper, Alan E. Leviton, Rafe M. Brown 2019. Illustrated Key to the Snakes of the Philippines. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 66 (1): 1-49 - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
 
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