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Leiocephalus carinatus GRAY, 1827

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Higher TaxaLeiocephalidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesLeiocephalus carinatus carinatus GRAY 1827
Leiocephalus carinatus aquarius SCHWARTZ & OGREN 1956
Leiocephalus carinatus armouri BARBOUR & SHREVE 1935
Leiocephalus carinatus cayensis SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus coryi SCHMIDT 1936
Leiocephalus carinatus granti RABB 1957
Leiocephalus carinatus hodsoni SCHMIDT 1936
Leiocephalus carinatus labrossytus SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus microcyon SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus mogotensis SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus virescens STEJNEGER 1901
Leiocephalus carinatus zayasi SCHWARTZ 1959 
Common NamesE: Northern Curly-tailed Lizard
G: Rollschwanzleguan
armouri: Little Bahama Curly-tailed Lizard 
SynonymLeiocephalus carinatus GRAY 1827: 208
Holotropis microlophus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 264 (part)
Leiocephalus macleayii GRAY 1845: 218
Liocephalus carinatus — BOULENGER 1885: 165
Leiocephalus carinatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 423
Leiocephalus carinatus — RODRÍGUEZ SCHETTINO 1999: 115

Leiocephalus carinatus carinatus GRAY 1827
Leiocephalus carinatus GRAY 1827: 208
Leiocephalus carinatus carinatus — BARBOUR & SHREVE 1935: 360
Leiocephalus carinatus carinatus — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus armouri BARBOUR & SHREVE 1935
Leiocephalus carinatus armouri BARBOUR & SHREVE 1935: 360
Leiocephalus carinatus armouri — DENZER 1985
Leiocephalus carinatus armouri — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 115
Leiocephalus carinatus armouri — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus cayensis SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus cayensis — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus coryi SCHMIDT 1936
Leiocephalus carinatus coryi SCHMIDT 1936: 129
Leiocephalus carinatus coryi — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus granti RABB 1957
Leiocephalus carinatus granti — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus hodsoni SCHMIDT 1936
Leiocephalus carinatus hodsoni SCHMIDT 1936: 130
Leiocephalus carinatus hodsoni — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus labrossytus SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus labrossytus — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus microcyon SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus microcyon — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus mogotensis SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus mogotensis — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus virescens STEJNEGER 1901
Leiocephalus carinatus virescens — PREGILL 1992: 40

Leiocephalus carinatus zayasi SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus carinatus zayasi — PREGILL 1992: 40 
DistributionUSA (introduced to SE Florida), Bahamas,
Cuba (+ Pinos), Cat Island I, Little San Salvador I, Isla de la Juventud, Honduras (WILSON & MCCRANIE 2002).
Cayman I, Swan I

carinatus: Cuba, northwest coast in Pinar del Rio, La Habana, and Matanzas provinces. Type locality: Cuba; restricted by Schwartz and Ogren, 1956, to La Habana, La Habana Province, Cuba.

aquarius: Cuba, southeast coast in Granma, Santiago de Cuba, and Guantânamo provinces.

armouri: Little Bahama Bank; Grand Bahama Island, Abacos. USA (introduced to SE Florida).

cayensis: Cuba, Jardines de la Reina.

coryi: Great Bahama Bank, western islands and cays.

granti: Cayman Is., Little Cayman I., Cayman Brac; Type locality: Cayman Brac

hodsdoni: Bahama Is.: eastem and southern Great Bahama Bank; Cat I., Little San Salvador I.

labrossytus: Cuba, south-central coast in Cienfuegos and Sancti Spiritus provinces; Bahia de Cochinos; Playa Larga. Altitudinal distribution sea level to about 1200 ft.

microcyon: Isla de la Juventud.

mogotensis: Cuba, central Pinar del Rio Province.

jus: Cayman Is., Grand Cayman I.; Swan Is.

virdscens: Great Bahama Bank: northern and eastern islands and cays.

zayasi: Cuba, Peninsula de Guanahacabibes.

INCERTAE SEDIS: Specimens from Villa Clara, Camagüey, and Holguin provinces are unassigned subspecifically; all specimens included in L. c. hodsdoni are not identical. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.29.75, MCZ R-38120, R-38110
Holotype: UMMZ [granti]
Holotype: ChM 55.1.62 [aquarius]
Holotype: MCZ 38090 [armouri]
Holotype: AMNH 77758 [cayensis]
Holotype: FMNH 260 [coryi]
Holotype: UMMZ 114494 [granti]
Holotype: FMNH 22752 [hodsdoni]
Holotype: AMNH 77757 [labrossytus]
Holotype: AMNH 81271 [microcyon]
Holotype: AMNH 77755 [mogotensis]
SYNTYPES MCZ 6023, USNM 52405 [jus]
Holotype: USNM 26758 [virdscens]
Holotype: AMNH 77756 [zayasi] 
CommentFor illustrations see Stejneger, 1917; Barbour and Ramsden, 1919; Rabb, 1957; Schwartz, 1959; Vogel, 1965; Vogel, 1966; Petzold, Pederzani, and Szidat, 1970; Schoener, Slade, and Stinson, 1982; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985.

Subspecies: Leiocephalus carinatus varius GARMAN 1887 has been considered as a valid species by recent authors.

Type species: Leiocephalus carinatus GRAY 1827 is the type species of the genus Leiocephalus GRAY 1827.

Diagnosis (genus): Terrestrial iguanian squamates of small (53 mm SVL) to large (to 200 mm SVL) size; nasal bones large; septo- maxilla reduced and free posteriorly; parietal roof constricted posteriorly in adults; nasal process of premaxilla overlapped dorsally and ven- trally by nasal bones; Meckel's groove usually closed and fused; tooth crowns variable, but always tricuspid posteriorly; anterior process present on interclavicle; posterior process of interclavicle broadly flared; sternum reduced (except L. herminieri): xiphisternal rods curve anteriorly crossing over postxiphisternal ribs; ribs on cervical vertebrae expanded as scoops; caudal neural spine sail-shaped; autonomic fracture planes beginning on fifth or sixth caudal vertebra; cephalic scales large, platelike; enlarged subocular scale present; body scales keeled; ventral scales smooth (except L. herminieri); antebrachial folds simple to complex; tail-curling behavior common [PREGILL 1992]. 
References
  • Barbour, T. 1904. Batrachia and Reptilia from the Bahamas. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 46: 55—61 - get paper here
  • Barbour, T. and B. Shreve. 1935. Concerning some Bahamian reptiles, with notes on the fauna. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 40: 347-365.
  • Barbour, T. and C. T. Ramsden. 1919. The herpetology of Cuba. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Coll. 47: 69-213. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cooper Jr., W.E. 2007. Escape and its relationship to pursuit-deterrent signalling in the Cuban Curly-tailed lizard Leiocephalus carinatus. Herpetologica 63 (2): 144-150 - get paper here
  • Cooper Jr., W.E.; Vitt, L.J.; Caldwell, J.P. & Fox, S.F. 2005. Relationships among foraging variables, phylogeny, and foraging modes, with new data for nine North American lizard species. Herpetologica 61 (3): 250-259 - get paper here
  • Denzer, W. 1985. Die Herpetofauna Südfloridas, Teil 1: Die disjunkten Populationen tropischer Reptilien und Amphibien im Süden Floridas. Sauria 7 (2): 5-10 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Franz, Richard;Dodd, C. Kenneth, Jr 1994. Leiocephalus carinatus virescens (Exuma Islands curlytail lizard). Bahamas: Great Bahama Bank. Herpetological Review 25 (4): 165 - get paper here
  • Gandia, Anaisa Cajigas; Javier Torres, and Orlando J. Torres 2015. A New Trophic Resource in the Diet of the Leiocephalus carinatus (Squamata: Leiocephalidae) in Cuba IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 22 (4): 152-152 - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1887. On the reptiles and batrachians of Grand Cayman. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 273-277 - get paper here
  • Gibbons, Whit; Judy Greene, and Tony Mills 2009. LIZARDS AND CROCODILIANS OF THE SOUTHEAST. University of Georgia Press, 240 pp.
  • Gray, J. E. 1827. A description of a new genus and some new species of saurian reptiles; with a revision of the species of chameleons. Philos. Mag., (ser. 2) 2: 207-214. - get paper here
  • Kircher BK, Robinson CD, & Johnson MA. 2014. Herbivory in the Northern Curly-tailed Lizard (Leiocephalus carinatus). Caribbean Herpetology 50:1-2 - get paper here
  • Krysko, K.K.; Enge, K.M.; Donlan, E.M.; Golden, E.Z.; Burgess, J.P. & Larson, K.W. 2009. THE NON-MARINE HERPETOFAUNA OF KEY BISCAYNE, FLORIDA. Herp. Cons. Biol. 5 (1):132-142 - get paper here
  • Krysko, Kenneth L., Kyle E. Giddens, Kurt H. Gielow, Travis S. Lowke, William S. Moore, Eric Suarez, Cailey D. Thomas and Steve A. Johnson. 2010. Geographic distribution: Leiocephalus carinatus. Herpetological Review 41 (3): 378 - get paper here
  • Kunz, K. 2005. Photogenic herpetofauna. Notes on Cuban Synanthropic species. Reptilia (GB) (43): 47-53 - get paper here
  • Kunz, K. 2005. Leiocephalus carinatus GRAY 1827 - Rollschwanzleguan. Reptilia (Münster) 10 (52): 51-54 - get paper here
  • Leptien, R. & Werning, H. 2009. Exoten-Tagebuch. [introduced reptiles in Florida]. Draco 10 (37): 44-54 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • Meshaka Jr., Walter E. 2011. A RUNAWAY TRAIN IN THE MAKING: THE EXOTIC AMPHIBIANS, REPTILES, TURTLES, AND CROCODILIANS OF FLORIDA. Herp. Cons. Biol. 6 (Monograph 1): 1-101 - get paper here
  • Meshaka, Jr., W.E., H.T. Smith, and C.L. Dean 2007. Gonadal cycle and growth of a west indian lizard, the Northern Curlytail Lizard (Leiocephalus carinatus armouri) in Southern Florida. Herp. Cons. Biol. 1 (2): 109-116 - get paper here
  • Petzold, H.G. Pederzani, H.A., and Szidat, H. 1970. Einige Beobachtungen zur Biologie des kubanischen Rollschwanzleguans, Leiocephalus carinatus. Zool. Garten 39(1/6): 304-22.
  • Pregill,G.K. 1992. Systematics of the West Indian Lizard Genus Leiocephalus (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae). Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 84: 1-69 - get paper here
  • Rabb, G.B. 1957. A study of variation in the iguanid lizards of the Leiocephalus carinatus complex. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Microfilms, Ann Arbor: xiii + 159 pp.
  • Rabb, George B. 1957. A new race of the iguanid lizard Leicephalus carinatus from Cayman Brac, B. W. I. Herpetologica 13: 109-110 - get paper here
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes (ed.) 1999. The iguanid lizards of Cuba. University Press of Florida, 428 pp.
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes, Carlos A. Mancina & Vilma Rivalta González 2013. REPTILES OF CUBA: CHECKLIST AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (144): 1-96
  • Rowan, Rex. 2011. Geographic Distribution: Leiocephalus carinatus (northern curly-tailed lizard). Herpetological Review 42 (3): 391 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, T. 2013. Auf Schlangensuche im Familien-Urlaub. Ein Drama in drei Akten. Reptilia (Münster) 18 (99): 68-75 - get paper here
  • Schoener, T.W. Slade, J.B., and Stinson, C.H. 1982. Diet and sexual dimorphism in the very catholic lizard genus, Leiocephalusof the Bahamas. Oecologia 53:160-69.
  • Schoener, T.W.; David A. Spiller, and Jonathan B. Losos 2004. Variable ecological effects of hurricanes: The importance of seasonal timing for survival of lizards on Bahamian islands. PNAS 101: 177-181
  • Schwartz, A. 1959. The Cuban lizards of the species Leiocephalus carinatus (Gray). Sci. Publ. Reading Public Mus. and Art Gallery (l0):l-47.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Ogren, L.H. 1956. A collection of reptiles and amphibians from Cuba, with the descriptionof two new forms. Herpetologica 12 (2): 91-110 - get paper here
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Smith, Henry T., Richard M. Engeman, Walter E. Jr. Meshaka and Ernest M. Cowan. 2006. Leiocephalus carinatus armouri Scavenged road-kill. Herpetological Review 37 (1): 87 - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, Leonhard 1901. Diagnosis of a new species of Iguanoid lizard from Green Cay, Bahama Islands. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 23 (1219): 471 - get paper here
  • Stejneger,L.H. 1917. Cuban amphibians and reptiles collected for the United States National Museum from 1899 to 1902. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 53: 259-291 - get paper here
  • Vogel, Z. 1965. Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf Kuba. Aquar. und Terrar. 12 (7):235-39.
  • Vogel, Z. 1966. Herpetologische waarnemingen op Cuba (II). Lacerta 24 (8): 59-60. - get paper here
  • Wilson, Larry David and James R. McCranie 2002. Update on the list of reptiles know from Honduras. Herpetological Review 33 (2):90-94 - get paper here
 
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