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Lepidoblepharis nukak CALDERÓN-ESPINOSA & MEDINA-RANGEL, 2016

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Higher TaxaSphaerodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymLepidoblepharis nukak CALDERÓN-ESPINOSA & MEDINA-RANGEL 2016 
DistributionColombia (Guaviare)

Type locality: Puerta de Orión, vereda La Pizarra on the way from Bogotá to San José del Guaviare (2°30'38.42"N, 72°42'24.44"W; datum Bogotá WGS 84), Guaviare department, Colombia, approximately 217 m elevation in tropical wet forest  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype. ICN-R 12305. An adult male, 27.87 mm SVL, 29.76 mm TL, collected by the authors on 27th October 2012.
Paratypes. Twenty adult and five juvenile specimens collected from several localities near the type locality in Guaviare department, Colombia, at approximately 216 m elevation in tropical wet forest. These individuals correspond to five males (ICN-R 12303-04, 12310, 12359, 12466), one female (ICN-R 12516), and one juvenile
individual (ICN-R 12515), 27.87 mm SVL, collected on 20-27th October 2012 (12303-4), April 16th and October 3rd 2013, and March 19th 2014 in Puentes Naturales, vereda El Retiro on the way to San José del Guaviare (2°32'24.55"N, 72°42'48.95"W); four males (ICN-R 12313, 12351, 12373, 12467), eight females (ICN-R 12306, 12309, 12329, 12463-65, 12374, 12514), and one juvenile (ICN-R 12360) collected in Puerta de Orion, Vereda El Retiro, ( 2°30'48.19"N, 72°44'33.95"W) on October 9th, 10th and 27th 2012, April 14th 2013, and March 20th 2014; two juveniles (ICN-R 12311-12) from Ciudad de Piedra, Serranía La Lindosa (2°27'55.64"N, 72°42'10.96"W), collected on April 18th and October 9th 2013; one male (ICN-R 12366) and one juvenile (12307) from Playa Güío (2°34'24.70"N, 72°42'48.99"W) collected on October 9th 2012 and October 27th 2013; and one female (ICN-R 12468) from Cerro Azul (2°34'51.96"N, 72°49'51.85"W), collected on March 22–23rd 2014. 
CommentDiagnosis. A small Lepidoblepharis (adult size 27.8–29.3 mm SVL) with the following characteristics: 10–13 lamellae beneath the fourth toe; dorsal and lateral body scales granular or subconical at midpoint between levels of axilla and groin; escutcheon on belly and thighs present in adult males; snout short and rounded; mental large, convex or slightly convex (backward projected) at its posterior edge, which is also indented and followed by two to five (usually four) large anterior postmentals, 20–31 scales across snout at lst/2nd supralabial suture (Fig. 3 in CALDERÓN-ESPINOSA & MEDINA-RANGEL 2016).

Comparison with other species. Lepidoblepharis nukak sp. nov. is distinct from other Lepidoblepharis, except from L. xanthostigma (Noble), in having a posterior edge of mental convex or slightly convex; besides, it belongs to species with body size of less than 30 mm SVL (including L. buchwaldi Werner, L. microlepis (Noble), L. miyatai Lamar, L. montecanoensis Markezich & Taphorn, L. peracae Boulenger and L. sanctaemartae (Ruthven)) (Table 1).
From species recorded or potentially distributed in the Colombian Amazonia (Cis- Andean region) (L. festae (Peracca), L. heyerorum Vanzolini and L. hoogmoedi Avila-Pires), L. nukak differs in the following characteristics (data for L. nukak sp. nov. is given first): by its smaller size (29.3 mm maximum SVL versus 42, 35 and 38 mm, respectively in the others species); presence of escutcheon in both abdomen and thighs versus only on the abdomen in the other three species; from L. festae in the size of postmental scales (larger than vs. same size as those further back), and number of subdigital lamellae (10–13 versus 14–15), and in the number of escutcheon scales on the abdomen (34–52 versus 60); from L. heyerorum by its number of ventral scales (first count) (36–45 versus 48–49 in L. heyerorum), and finally, from L. hoogmoedi, in the number of scales around midbody (80–91 versus 92–93), in the number of escutcheon scales on the abdomen (34–52 versus 56), and it also differs by the absence of a light arc on posterior part of head.
Lepidoblepharis nukak sp. nov. differs from Andean and Trans Andean species of Lepidoblepharis (L. buchwaldi, L. colombianus Mechler, L. conolepis Avila-Pires, L. duolepis Ayala & Castro, L. grandis Miyata, L. intermedius Boulenger, L. microlepis, L. miyatai, L. montecanoensis, L. oxycephalus (Werner), L. peraccae, L. ruthveni Parker, L. sanctaemartae, L. williamsi Ayala & Serna, and L. xanthostigma), in the following combination of characters: from L. sanctaemartae and L. miyatai, by its larger body size (29.3 vs. 25 and 23 mm SVL, respectively), having dorsal scales granular (approximately conical), versus flat, smooth and imbricate, and by its higher counts of scales around midbody (Table 1); it further differs from L. miyatai by having fewer ventral scales (both counts), more dorsal scales between first supralabial suture, and larger postmental scales; and from L. sanctaemartae in having more lamellae and by the presence of escutcheon scales on the abdomen and thighs versus only on the abdomen; from L. ruthveni and L. duolepis by its homogeneous dorsal scales, versus heterogeneous in the other two, fewer ventral scales (first count, Table 1), and maximum body size (29.3 vs 32 mm in L. ruthveni and 46 mm in L. duolepis); it further differs from L. ruthveni by having fewer lamellae, fewer ventral scales (second count), and fewer midventral scales; and from L. duolepis by having the escutcheon on abdomen and thighs versus only in the abdomen; from L. intermedius by fewer ventral scales (both counts, Table 1), presence of escutcheon on thighs and abdomen versus only on the abdomen, fewer escutcheon scales, and a shorter versus a very long and pointed snout in L. intermedius; from L. conolepis and L. grandis by the shape and size of the dorsal scales (smaller and subconical versus larger and conical in the other two), its smaller body size (29.3 vs. 44 and 56 in the two species, respectively), fewer subdigital lamellae, fewer ventral scales (longitudinal row scales along a midventral line between anterior level of fore- and hind limbs), fewer midventral scales (Table 2), and more dorsal scales between first supralabial suture, and presence of escutcheon on thighs and abdomen versus only on the abdomen; from L. grandis in having fewer lamellae, postmental scales and loreal scales, and more dorsal scales between first supralabial suture; from L. conolepis in having fewer ventral scales (first count), fewer scales around midbody, and fewer escutcheon scales; from L. montecanoensis by its larger body size (29.3 vs 21 mm), the presence of escutcheon on thighs and abdomen versus only in the abdomen and fewer escutcheon scales; from L. oxycephalus by the size of the postmental scales (larger versus same size as posterior scales of chin); from L. xanthostigma, by its smaller body size (29.3 vs. 38 mm), number of ventrals (count 2; Table 1); from L. peraccae by having fewer ventral scales (first count), more subdigital lamellae which are not expanded, and by the presence of escutcheon on thighs and abdomen versus only on abdomen; from L. microlepis by the lower number of loreal scales; from L. emberawoundule Batista, Ponce, Vesely, Mebert, Hertz, Köhler, Carrizo & Lotzkat, L. rufigularis Batista, Ponce, Vesely, Mebert, Hertz, Köhler, Carrizo & Lotzkat, and L. victormartinezi Batista, Ponce, Vesely, Mebert, Hertz, Köhler, Carrizo & Lotzkat by its larger body size; from L. emberawoundule and L. victormartinezi by having more subdigital lamellae; from L. rufigularis and L. victormartinezi by fewer abdominal escutcheon scales, from L. victormartinezi by having escutcheon scales on abdomen and thighs versus only on abdomen; and from L. rufigularis by having more dorsal scales between first supralabial suture; and finally from L. microlepis and L. buchwaldi by its larger body size (29.3 vs. 23 and 27 mm, respectively) [CALDERÓN-ESPINOSA & MEDINA-RANGEL 2016]. 
EtymologyThe name of this new taxon is given in honor of the nomadic Amazonian people Nukak. This word means: the true people or people that speak the Nukak language, and is how these people are self-denominated. 
References
  • CALDERÓN-ESPINOSA, MARTHA LUCIA & GUIDO FABIAN MEDINA-RANGEL 2016. A new Lepidoblepharis lizard (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae) from the Colombian Guyana shield. Zootaxa 4067 (2): 215–232
 
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