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Leptotyphlops incognitus (BROADLEY & WATSON, 1976)

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Leptotyphlopinae, Leptotyphlopini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesIncognito Thread Snake 
SynonymStenostoma nigricans PETERS 1882 (not SCHLEGEL) (part.)
Glauconia conjuncta — GOUGH 1908 (not JAN) (part.)
Glauconia conjuncta - BOULENGER 1908 (part.)
Leptotyphlops conjuncta — FITZSIMONS 1939: 20
Leptotyphlops emini — BOGERT 1940: 14 (not BOULENGER)
Leptotyphlops nigricans — MANAÇAS 1957 (not SCHLEGEL)
Leptotyphlops scutifrons — WILSON 1965: 152 (not PETERS)
Leptotyphlops conjunctus — BROADLEY 1971: 71 (not JAN)
Leptotyphlops conjunctus incognitus BROADLEY & WATSON 1976
Leptotyphlops conjunctus incognitus — AUERBACH 1987: 150
Leptotyphlops conjunctus incognitus — BRANCH 1988: 386
Leptotyphlops conjunctus — BROADLEY & BROADLEY 1999
Leptotyphlops conjunctus — BROADLEY et al. 2003
Leptotyphlops incognitus — BROADLEY & WALLACH 2007: 62
Leptotyphlops incognitus — JACOBSEN et al. 2010
Leptotyphlops incognitus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 367 
DistributionS Zambia, S Malawi, N/E Zimbabwe, C/S Mozambique (including the Bazaruto archipelago), E Swaziland, NE South Africa.

Type locality: Umtali, Rhodesia (= Mutare, Zimbabwe) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: NMZB, previously UM 6121 
CommentDiagnosis. A race of Leptotyphlops conjunctus (Jan), distinguished from the typical form by its high total dorsal (usually 230-292: usually less than 230 in the typical form) and subcaudal (usually 26-35: usually less than 26 in the typical form) counts. Lacking the white patch on the distal subcaudals which is frequently present in typical conjunctus. The subspecific epithet incognitus=unrecognised, refers to the length of time that this form has remained undetected, although common and widely distributed [from BROADLEY & WATSON 1976]. 
References
  • Adalsteinsson, S.A.; Branch, W.R.; Trapé, S.; Vitt, L.J. & Hedges, S.B. 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of snakes of the Family Leptotyphlopidae (Reptilia, Squamata). Zootaxa 2244: 1-50 - get paper here
  • Auerbach, R.D. 1987. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana. Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Bogert,C.M. 1940. Herpetological results of the Vernay Angola Expedition. I. Snakes, including an arrangement of the African Colubridae. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 77: 1-107
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1901. Materiaux pour la faune du Congo. Batraciens et reptiles nouveaux. Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, Zool. (sect. C. ser. 1) 2: 7-14.
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1908. On a collection of fresh-water fishes, batrachians, and reptiles from Natal and Zululand, with description of new species. Ann Natal Gov. Mus. (Pietermaritzburg) 1(3): 219-235
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1890. Description of a new Snake of the Genus Glauconia Gray, obtained by Dr. Emin Pasha on the Victoria Nyanza. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 6: 91-93. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Branch,W.R. 1988. Field Guide to the snakes and other reptiles of southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 328 pp.
  • Broadley D G. Wallach V. 1997. A review of the worm snakes of Mozambique (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) with the description of a new species. Arnoldia Zimbabwe 10 (11): 111-119
  • Broadley, D. & Blaylock 2013. The Snakes of Zimbabwe and Botswana. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 387 pp. [book review in Sauria 35 (2): 59 and Copeia 2014: 388] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D. G. 1971. The reptiles and amphibians of Zambia. The Puku, Occas. Pap. Dept. Wild. Fish. Natl. Parks Zambia 6: 1-143
  • Broadley, D.G. 1998. The reptilian fauna of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa). In: Schmidt, K.P. and Noble, G.K., Contributions to the Herpetology of the Belgian Congo... [reprint of the 1919 and 1923 papers]. SSAR Facsimile reprints in Herpetology, 780 pp.
  • Broadley, D.G. & WATSON,G. 1976. A revision of the Worm Snakes of South-eastern Africa (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Occ. Pap. nation. Mus. Rhodesia Bulawayo, (BS) 1976: (8): 465-510
  • Broadley, D.G.; Doria, C.T. & Wigge, J. 2003. Snakes of Zambia. An Atlas and Field Guide. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 280 pp. [review in Sauria 26 (3): 21]
  • Broadley, Donald G. & Broadley, Sheila 1999. A review of the Arican wormsnakes from South of Latitude 12°S (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Syntarsus 5: 1-36
  • Broadley, Donald G. & Wallach, V. 2007. A revision of the genus Leptotyphlops in northeastern Africa and southwestern Arabia (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Zootaxa 1408: 1–78 - get paper here
  • Chifundera, K. 1990. Snakes of Zaire and their bites. Afr. Stud. Monogr. (Kyoto) 10(3): 137-157.
  • Fitzsimons, V. 1966. A check-list, with syntopic keys, to the snakes of southern Africa. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 25 (3): 35-79 - get paper here
  • Fitzsimons, Vivian Frederick Maynard 1939. An account of the reptiles and amphibians collected on an expedition to south-eastern Rhodesia during December 1937 and January 1938. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 20 (1): 17-46. - get paper here
  • Gough, L.H. 1908. Catalogue of the South African snakes in the collections of the Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, the Albany Museum, Grahamstown, and the State Museum, Bloemfontein. Ann. Transvaal Mus. 1: 17-45 - get paper here
  • Hahn D. E. & V. WALLACH, 1998. Comments on the systematics of Old World Leptotyphlops (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae), with description of a new species. Hamadryad 23: 50-62 - get paper here
  • Jacobsen, Niels H.G.; Errol W. Pietersen & Darren W. Pietersen 2010. A preliminary herpetological survey of the Vilanculos Coastal Wildlife Sanctuary on the San Sebastian Peninsula, Vilankulo, Mozambique. Herpetology Notes 3: 181-193 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1861. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 2. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1862. Note sulla famiglia dei Tiflopidi, sui loro generi e sulle specie del genere Stenostoma. Arch. Zool. Anat. Fisiol. Genova 1 [1861]: 178-199 - get paper here
  • Laurent,R.F. 1956. Contribution à l'herpetologie de la région des Grandes Lacs de l'Afrique centrale. Ann. Mus. Roy. Congo Belge (Sci. Zool.), 48: 1-390
  • Loveridge,A. 1933. Reports on the scientific Results of an Expedition to the Southwestem Highlands of Tanganyika Territory. VII. Herpetology. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 74: 197-415 - get paper here
  • Manaças, SARA 1957. Contribuiçao para o estudo dos répteis (saurios e leptotiflopideos) de Moçambique. An. Junta Invest. Ultramar 9 (Pt. 3): 1-8
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Sternfeld, R. 1912. IV. Zoologie II. Lfg. Reptilia. In: Schubotz., R. (ed.): Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1907- 1908, unter Führung A. Friedrichs, Herzogs zu Mecklenburg. Klinkhard und Biermann, Leipzig: 197-279 [published 1912, not 1913, as often cited, see Männel & Kucharzewski 2017] - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F. & R. ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995. Les serpents du Congo: liste commentée et clé de détermination. Journal of African Zoology 109 (1): 31-50
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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