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Leptotyphlops scutifrons (PETERS, 1854)

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Leptotyphlopinae, Leptotyphlopini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesPeter's Thread Snake 
SynonymStenostoma scutifrons PETERS 1854: 621
Glauconia scutifrons - BOULENGER 1890
Glauconia scutifrons — BOULENGER 1893: 68
Glauconia scutifrons — WERNER 1910: 354
Glauconia okahandjana AHL 1924
Leptotyphlops scutifrons - FITZSIMONS 1935
Leptotyphlops scutifrons — FITZSIMONS & BRAIN 1958
Leptotyphlops scutifrons scutifrons - BROADLEY & WATSON 1976: 497
Leptotyphlops scutifrons scutifrons — AUERBACH 1987: 149
Leptotyphlops scutifrons scutifrons — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 22
Leptotyphlops scutifrons — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 41
Leptotyphlops scutifrons scutifrons — BROADLEY & WALLACH 2007: 64
Leptotyphlops scutifrons — ADALSTEINSSON, BRANCH, TRAPE, VITT & HEDGES 2009
Leptotyphlops scutifrons scutifrons — BROADLEY & BLAYLOCK 2013
Leptotyphlops scutifrons — WALLACH et al. 2014: 369 
DistributionS Tanzania south to Natal, west to Angola and Namibia.

Type locality: “Sena” [Mozambique], “Benguella (Westafrika)” [Angola] Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: ZMB 4826 (lost fide HAHN 1980), possibly ZMB 5706
Lectotype (merkeri): SMNS 4170, collected by H. Merker, 1904–1905.
Holotype: BMNH 1935.10.11.4; Collected by C.R.S. Pitman, July 1935 [pitmani] 
CommentSynonymy: from several sources and possibly in need of review. L. latifrons is now considered as a valid species (but was previously synonymized with L. scutifrons). WALLACH et al. 2014: list Leptotyphlops pitmani and L. merkeri as synonyms of L. scutifrons. However, neither L. pitmani nor L. merkeri were closely related to L. scutifrons in the phylogenetic analysis of Adalsteinsson et al. 2009, hence we leave them as separate species for the time being.

Subspecies: Leptotyphlops scutifrons pitmani BROADLEY & WALLACH 2007 and Leptotyphlops scutifrons merkeri (WERNER 1909) have been elevated to full species status.

Diagnosis (scutifrons). A species with the prefrontal fused with the rostral, forming a large shield, unguiform in dorsal view, which is more than a third width of head at level of posterior borders of eyes and in good contact with supraoculars; anterior supralabial present; occipitals entire. Tail usually with 10 rows of scales, terminating abruptly in terminal spine. Colouration uniform black above and below [from BROADLEY & WATSON 1976]. 
References
  • Adalsteinsson, S.A.; Branch, W.R.; Trapé, S.; Vitt, L.J. & Hedges, S.B. 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of snakes of the Family Leptotyphlopidae (Reptilia, Squamata). Zootaxa 2244: 1-50 - get paper here
  • Ahl, E. 1924. Neue Reptilien und Batrachier aus dem zoologischen Museum Berlin. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 90 (A) 5: 246-254
  • Auerbach, R.D. 1987. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana. Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Bauer, Aaron M.; Branch, William R. & Haacke, Wulf D. 1993. The herpetofauna of the Kamanjab area and adjacent Damaraland, Namibia. Madoqua (Windhoek) 18 (2): 117-145.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1890. Description of a new Snake of the Genus Glauconia Gray, obtained by Dr. Emin Pasha on the Victoria Nyanza. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 6: 91-93. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Boycott, R.C. 1992. An Annotated Checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Swaziland. The Conservation Trust of Swaziland - get paper here
  • Branch, William R. 1993. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 144 S.
  • Broadley D G. Wallach V. 1997. A review of the worm snakes of Mozambique (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) with the description of a new species. Arnoldia Zimbabwe 10 (11): 111-119
  • Broadley, D. & Blaylock 2013. The Snakes of Zimbabwe and Botswana. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 387 pp. [book review in Sauria 35 (2): 59 and Copeia 2014: 388] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D. G. & HOWELL, K. M. 1991. A check list of the reptiles of Tanzania, with synoptic keys. Syntarsus 1: 1—70
  • Broadley, D.G. 1959. The herpetology of Southern Rhodesia. Part I--the snakes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 120 (1): 1-100 [reprint 1972] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1962. On some reptile collections from the North-Western and North-Eastern Districts of Southern Rhodesia 1958-1961, with descriptions of four new lizards. Occ. Pap. Nat. Mus. South. Rhodesia 26 (B): 787-843
  • Broadley, D.G. & WATSON,G. 1976. A revision of the Worm Snakes of South-eastern Africa (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Occ. Pap. nation. Mus. Rhodesia Bulawayo, (BS) 1976: (8): 465-510
  • Broadley, D.G.; Doria, C.T. & Wigge, J. 2003. Snakes of Zambia. An Atlas and Field Guide. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 280 pp. [review in Sauria 26 (3): 21]
  • Broadley, Donald G. & Broadley, Sheila 1999. A review of the Arican wormsnakes from South of Latitude 12°S (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Syntarsus 5: 1-36
  • Broadley, Donald G. & Wallach, V. 2007. A revision of the genus Leptotyphlops in northeastern Africa and southwestern Arabia (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Zootaxa 1408: 1–78 - get paper here
  • Conradie W, Bills R, and Branch WR. 2016. The herpetofauna of the Cubango, Cuito, and lower Cuando river catchments of south-eastern Angola. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 10(2) [Special Section]: 6–36 - get paper here
  • Fitzsimons, V. 1966. A check-list, with syntopic keys, to the snakes of southern Africa. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 25 (3): 35-79 - get paper here
  • FitzSimons, V. F. 1935. Scientific results of the Vernay-Lang Kalahari Expedition, March to September, 1930, Reptilia and Amphibia. Ann. Transvaal Mus., Pretoria, 16: 295-397 - get paper here
  • Fitzsimons, V.F.M.; Brain, C.K. 1958. A Short account of the Reptiles of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. Koedoe, 1(1): 99-104 - get paper here
  • Hahn D. E. & V. WALLACH, 1998. Comments on the systematics of Old World Leptotyphlops (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae), with description of a new species. Hamadryad 23: 50-62 - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B., Marion, A.B., Lipp, K.M., Marin, J. & Vidal, N. 2014. A taxonomic framework for typhlopid snakes from the Caribbean and other regions (Reptilia, Squamata). Caribbean Herpetology 49: 1–61 - get paper here
  • Herrmann, H.-W.; W.R. Branch 2013. Fifty years of herpetological research in the Namib Desert and Namibia with an updated and annotated species checklist. Journal of Arid Environments 93: 94–115 - get paper here
  • Malonza, Vincent; Beryl A. Bwong, Vincent Muchai 2011. Kitobo Forest of Kenya, a unique hotspot of herpetofaunal divers. Acta Herpetologica 6 (2): 149-160 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Peters,W.C.H. 1854. Diagnosen neuer Batrachier, welche zusammen mit der früher (24. Juli und 17. August) gegebenen Übersicht der Schlangen und Eidechsen mitgetheilt werden. Ber. Bekanntmach. Geeignet. Verhandl. Königl.-Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1854: 614-628
  • Razzetti, E. & Msuya, C.A. 2002. Field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Arusha National Park (Tanzania). Publ. Ed. Negri Istituto, Oikos, Varese, 84 pp.
  • Schlüter, A. & Hallermann, J. 1997. The Type Specimens in the Herpetological Collection of the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde in Stuttgart. Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. Ser. A (553): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Sternfeld, R. 1908. Neue und ungenügend bekannte afrikanische Schlangen. S. Ber. Ges. naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 4: 92-95 - get paper here
  • Sternfeld, R. 1910. Zur Schlangenfauna Deutsch-Südwestafrikas. Mehrere Fälle von Mimikry bei afrikanischen Schlangen. Mitt. zool. Mus. Berlin, 5: 51-60 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner,F. 1909. Beschreibung neuer Reptilien aus dem Kgl. Naturalienkabinett in Stuttgart. Jahreshefte Ver. vaterl. Naturk. Württ. 65: 55-63 - get paper here
  • Werner,F. 1910. Reptilia et Amphibia. In Schultze, L., Zoologische und anthropologische Ergebnisse einer Forschungsreise im westlichen und zentralen Südafrika. Band IV, Systematik und Tiergeographie Vertebrata B. Denkschr. Med.-Nat. Wiss. GeselI. Jena 16: 279-370 [1910] - get paper here
 
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