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Liodytes pygaea (COPE, 1871)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesLiodytes pygaea cyclas DOWLING, 1950
Liodytes pygaea paludis DOWLING, 1950
Liodytes pygaea pygaea (COPE, 1871) 
Common NamesBlack Swamp Snake
cyclas: South Florida Swamp Snake
paludis: Carolina Swamp Snake
pygaea: North Florida Swamp Snake 
SynonymContia pygaea COPE 1871: 223
Contia pygaea — GARMAN 1884: 93
Tropidonotus pygaeus — BOULENGER 1893: 228
Seminatrix pygaea — COPE 1895: 678
Contia pygaea — LOENNBERG 1894
Seminatrix pygaea — DOWLING 1950
Seminatrix pygaea — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 160
Seminatrix pygaea — CROTHER et al. 2012
Liodytes pygaea — MCVAY & CARSTENS 2013
Seminatrix pygaea — WALLACH et al. 2014: 665

Liodytes pygaea cyclas (DOWLING 1950)
Seminatrix pygaea cyclas — CROTHER 2000
Seminatrix pygaea cyclas — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 162
Seminatrix pygaea cyclas — CROTHER et al. 2012

Liodytes pygaea paludis (DOWLING 1950)
Seminatrix pygaea paludis — PALMER & BRASWELL 1995
Seminatrix pygaea paludis — CROTHER 2000
Seminatrix pygaea paludis — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 163
Seminatrix pygaea paludis — CROTHER et al. 2012

Liodytes pygaea pygaea (COPE 1871)
Contia pygaea COPE 1871: 223
Seminatrix pygaea pygaea — CROTHER 2000
Seminatrix pygaea pygaea — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 161
Seminatrix pygaea pygaea — CROTHER et al. 2012 
DistributionUSA (Florida, SE Alabama, S/E Georgia, South Carolina, E North Carolina)

cyclas: Florida; type locality: Indian Prairie, 2-8 miles NE of Lakeport, Glades County, Florida.

paludis: North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia; type locality: Camp Davis, Near hollyridge, Onslow County, North Carolina.

pygaea: Florida, S Georgia; Type locality: Volusia [county], Florida  
Reproductionviviparous. 
TypesHolotype: ANSP 3533
Holotype: UMMZ 91457 [paludis]
Holotype: UMMZ [cyclas] 
CommentType species: Contia pygaea COPE 1871 is the type species of the genus Seminatrix COPE 1895: 678. See diagnosis in DOWLING 1950.

Diagnosis (paludis): ventrals over 126 (M ca. 131). 
Etymologyfrom Latin “pyga”, from Greek “the rump”; apparently after an unusual condition in the holotype which was more compressed than other specimens. “cyclas” form Greek, “garment ornamented with aborder around the bottom” (DOWLING 1950). 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cope, E.D. 1871. Ninth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 23: 200-224 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Dorcas, Michael E ; Gibbons, J Whitfield; Dowling, Herndon G 1998. Seminatrix, S. pygaea. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 679: 1-5 - get paper here
  • Dowling, Herndon G. 1950. Studies of the black swamp snake, Seminatrix pygaea (Cope), with descriptions of two new subspecies. Miscellaneous publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (76): 1-38 - get paper here
  • Durso, A. M. and B. Rosenthal 2016. Seminatrix pygaea (Black Swampsnake) predation. Herpetological Review 47(3): 484-485.
  • Enge, Kevin M. 2009. Venomous and non-venomous snakes of Florida. Publication of the Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. 16 pp.
  • Ernst, C.H., & Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of eastern North America. George Mason Univ. Press, Fairfax, VA 282 pp.
  • Garman,Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Gibbons, J. W. & Mike Dorcas 2004. North American Water Snakes. University of Oklahoma Press, 496 pp.
  • Jensen, John B.; Carlos D. Camp, Whit Gibbons, & Matt J. Elliott 2008. Amphibians and reptiles of Georgia. University of Georgia Press, 575 pp.
  • Lönnberg, Einar 1894. Notes on reptiles and batrachians collected in Florida in 1892 and 1893. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 17 (1003): 317-339 - get paper here
  • Mays, Jonathan D., Enge, Kevin M. and Moler, Paul E. 2016. Geographic Distribution: Liodytes pygaea pygaea (Northern Florida Swampsnake) Herpetological Review 47 (4): 630
  • McVay, John David; Bryan Carstens 2013. Testing monophyly without well-supported gene trees: Evidence from multi-locus nuclear data conflicts with existing taxonomy in the snake tribe Thamnophiini. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 68, Issue 3, September 2013, Pages 425–431 - get paper here
  • Palmer, W.M. & Braswell, A.L. 1995. Reptiles of North Carolina. Univ. North Carolina Press
  • Palmer, William M.;Paul, John R. 1963. The black swamp snake, Seminatrix pygaea paludis Dowling, in North Carolina. Herpetologica 19 (3): 219-221 - get paper here
  • Tennant, A. 2003. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions, revised edition. Lone Star Books, 605 pp.
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Willson, J. D. and C. T. Winne 2015. Evaluating the functional importance of secretive species: A case study of aquatic snake predators in isolated wetlands. Journal of Zoology, DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12311 - get paper here
 
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