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Liolaemus chiliensis (LESSON, 1830)

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Chilean Tree Iguana, Unidentata lizard, weeping lizard 
SynonymCalotes chiliensis LESSON 1830: 36 (1828 fide LAURENT 1992)
Tropidurus chilensis — WIEGMANN in MEYEN 1834: 233, 268
Tropidurus olivaceus WIEGMANN 1835: 268c
Proctotretus Chilensis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 269
Liolaemus chilensis — FITZINGER 1843: 75
Leiodeira chilensis — GRAY 1845: 210
Liodeira chilensis — GIRARD 1858: 340 (part.)
Proctotretus Chilensis — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 269
Liolaemus chilensis — BOULENGER 1885: 141
Liolaemus chilensis — KOSLOWSKY 1896
Liolaemus chilensis — DONOSO-BARROS 1966: 170
Liolaemus chiliensis — SCHULTE et al. 2000
Liolaemus (Liolaemus) chiliensis — PINCHEIRA-DONOSO & NÚÑEZ 2005: 231
Liolaemus chiliensis — SCROCCHI et al. 2010: 85 
DistributionChile (Coquimbo, Cautin; HR 33: 226), Argentina (Neuquen, Rio Negro)

Type locality: Talcahuano, Provincia de Concepción, Chile.  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 2399, MNHN-RA 2474, MNHN-RA 2474A, MNHN-RA 2475, MNHn-RA 6837, MNHN-RA 6837A, MNHN-RA 6868 and MNHN-RA 6838A 
CommentSynonymy partly after BOULENGER 1885. Some of the synonyms of L. chiliensis were listed as synonyms of L. nitidus by BOULENGER 1885. BOULENGER (1885) also considered Proctotretus modestus PHILIPPI 1860 as a synonym of Liolaemus chiliensis (LESSON 1830).

Type species: Calotes chiliensis LESSON 1830 is the type species of the genus Liolaemus WIEGMANN 1834. The genus Liolaemus is the type genus of the family Liolaemidae FROST et al. 2001 (previously Liolaeminae FROST & ETHERIDGE 1989).

Within Liolaemus the approximately 80 species of the Liolaemus sensu stricto group of Laurent (1985) or chiliensis group (Etheridge 1995) share two characters: a fused meckel’s groove and four or fewer precloacal pores.

Karyotype: this species includes populations with diploid (2n), triploid (3n) and mosaic (2n/3n) females, and with diploid and mosaic males whose meiosis produces reduced (n) and unreduced (2n) euploid gametes, resulting in morphological differences between polyploid and diploid animals (Araya-Donoso et al. 2017).

The chiliensis group has been studied in detail by LOBO (2001) and DIAZ-GOMEZ & LOBO (2006). LOBO (2001) suggests the following monophyletic species groups within Liolaemus: alticolor, altissimus, gravenhorstii, hellmichi, kriegi, leopardinus, monticola, nigromaculatus, nigroviridis, pictus and tenuis.

Phylogenetics: Esquerré et al. 2022 and Portelli et al. 2022 presented comprehensive phylogenomics and phylogenetic analyses of Liolaemus. 
EtymologyNamed after the country of origin (Chili = Chile in French). 
  • Araya-Donoso, R., Véliz, D., Vidal, M., & Lamborot, M. 2017. Relationships of the morphological variation in diploids, triploids and mosaics of Liolaemus chiliensis (Sauria: Liolaemidae). Amphibia-Reptilia, 38(4), 503–515 - get paper here
  • Araya-Donoso, Raúl; Fernando Torres-Pérez, David Véliz, Madeleine Lamborot 2019. Hybridization and polyploidy in the weeping lizard Liolaemus chiliensis (Squamata: Liolaemidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, blz145 - get paper here
  • Avila, Luciano Javier, Perez, Cristian Hernan Fulvio and Morando, Mariana 2017. Tachymenis chiliensis chiliensis (Southern Short-tailed Snake) Diet. Herpetological Review 48 (1): 220 - get paper here
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; LORENA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2013. Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: an update. Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Castro-Pastene, Carlos; Héctor Carrasco & Jaime Troncoso-Palacios. 2015. Lagartijas y serpientes del Parque Nacional Radal Siete Tazas. Boletín Chileno de Herpetología 2: 12-16 - get paper here
  • Demangel, Diego 2016. Reptiles en Chile. Fauna Nativa Ediciones, Santiago, 619 pp - get paper here
  • Demangel, Diego 2016. Guía de Campo - Reptiles del centro sure de Chile. Corporación Chilena de la Madera, Concepción, Chile 187 pp. - get paper here
  • Donoso-Barros, R. 1966. Reptiles de Chile. Santiago: Univ. Chile, 458 + cxlvi pp.
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M.C., G. BIBRON & A. DUMÉRIL 1854. Erpétologie générale ou Histoire Naturelle complète des Reptiles. Vol. 9. Paris, XX + 440 S. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Esquerré, Damien; J Scott Keogh, Diego Demangel, Mariana Morando, Luciano J Avila, Jack W Sites, Jr., Francisco Ferri-Yáñez, Adam D Leaché 2022. Rapid Radiation and Rampant Reticulation: Phylogenomics of South American Liolaemus Lizards. Systematic Biology 71 (2): 286–300 - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Frost, Darrel R.; Richard Etheridge; Daniel Janies and Tom A. Titus 2001. Total evidence, sequence alignment, evolution of polychrotid lizards, and a reclassification of the Iguania (Squamata, Iguania). American Museum Novitates 3343: 1-22 - get paper here
  • Frost,D.R. & Etheridge,R.E. 1989. A Phylogenetic Analysis and Taxonomy of Iguanian Lizards (Reptilia: Squamata). Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 81: 1-62 - get paper here
  • Girard, Charles F. 1858. United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, Under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Vol. 20. Herpetology. C. Sherman & Son, Philadelphia, xv, 492 pages [see note in Zhao and Adler 1993: 369] - get paper here
  • González-Candia, Francisco J. 2018. Estimación preliminar de las poblaciones simpátricas de tres especies de lagartos del género Liolaemus(Squamata: Liolaemidae) en un ambiente fragmentado del litoral central de Chile. Boletín Chileno de Herpetología. 5: 6-11 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Hellmich,W. 1938. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Herpetofauna Chiles. XII. Die Eidechsen des Volcán Villa Rica (Sammlung Schröder). Zool. Anz. 124 (9-10): 237-242.
  • Koslowsky,J. 1896. Sobre algunos reptiles de Patagonia y otras regiones argentinas. Revista Mus. La Plata 7: 447-457 - get paper here
  • Labra, A., Reyes‐Olivares, C., & Weymann, M. 2016. Asymmetric Response to Heterotypic Distress Calls in the Lizard Liolaemus chiliensis. Ethology 122(9): 758-768 - get paper here
  • Labra, Antonieta; Gabriela Silva, Fernanda Norambuena, Nelson Velásquez, and Mario Penna 2013. Acoustic Features of the Weeping Lizard's Distress Call. Copeia Jul 2013, Vol. 2013, No. 2: 206-212. - get paper here
  • Lamborot, M.; Manzur, M.E. & Alvarez-Sarret, E. 2006. Triploidy and mosaicism in Liolaemus chiliensis (Sauria: Tropiduridae). Genome 49: 445–453 - get paper here
  • Lesson, R.P. 1830. Description de quelques reptiles nouveaux ou peu connus. In: M.L.I. Duperrey, Voyage Autour du Monde Execute par Ordre du Roi, sur la Corvette de La Majeste, La Coquille, Pendant les Annees 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825. 2. Zoologie Tome 2, Partie 1. Arthur Bertrand, Paris: 1-65 [published 1829 fide Ivan Ineich] - get paper here
  • Lobo, Fernando 2001. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Lizards of the Liolaemus chiliensis Group (Iguania: Tropiduridae). The Herpetological Journal 11 (4):137-150 - get paper here
  • Novoa, F J; Altamirano, T A & Ibarra, J T; 2019. Liolaemus chiliensis (Chilean Tree Iguana) and Liolaemus tenuis (Thin Tree Iguana) Habitat Use. Herpetological Review 50 (1): 142 - get paper here
  • Núñez,H.; Schulte, J.A. & Garín, C. 2001. Liolaemus josephorum, nueva especie de lagartija para el Norte de Chile. Bol. Mus. Nac.Hist. Nat. 50: 91-107
  • PINCHEIRA-DONOSO, Daniel & HERMAN NÚÑEZ 2005. The Chilean species of the genus Liolaemus Wiegmann, 1834 (Iguania, Tropiduridae, Liolaeminae). Taxonomy, systematics and evolution [in Spanish] Mus Nac Hist Nat Chile Publ Ocas 59: 1-486 - get paper here
  • Portelli, S. N., Abdala, C. S., Schulte II, J., Gómez, J. M. D., Fernández, L. D., & Quinteros, A. S. 2022. Historical Biogeographic Reconstruction of the South American Liolaemus boulengeri Group (Iguania: Liolaemidae). South American Journal of Herpetology, 25(1), 41-56 - get paper here
  • Reyes-Olivares, C. and Labra, A. 2017. Emission of sounds by native lizards of Chile: the state of the art. Boletín Chileno de Herpetología. 4: 1-9 - get paper here
  • Reyes-Olivares, C., Rain-Garrido, I., & Labra, A. 2016. Protrusión ocular en lagartos Liolaemus (Weigmann 1843). Gayana. 80 (1): 129-132 - get paper here
  • SCHULTE II, JAMES A.; J. ROBERT MACEY, ROBERT E. ESPINOZA AND ALLAN LARSON 2000. Phylogenetic relationships in the iguanid lizard genus Liolaemus: multiple origins of viviparous reproduction and evidence for recurring Andean vicariance and dispersal. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 69: 75–102 - get paper here
  • Scrocchi, Gustavo J.; Cristian S. Abdala,Javier Nori, Hussam Zaher 2010. Reptiles de la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina. Fondo Ed. Rionegrino, 249 pp.
  • Tulli, M.J.; F.B. Cruz, A. Herrel, B. Vanhooydonck, V. Abdala 2009. The interplay between claw morphology and microhabitat use in neotropical iguanian lizards. Zoology 112 (5): 379-392 - get paper here
  • Uribe, Sandra V and Cristián F Estades 2014. Reptiles in Monterey pine plantations of the Coastal Range of Central Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 2014, 87:25 - get paper here
  • Valdecantos, S. & A. Labra 2017. Testing the functionality of precloacal secretions from both sexes in the South American lizard, Liolaemus chiliensis Amphibia-Reptilia, 38(2): 209-216. - get paper here
  • Valdecantos, Soledad; Mario R. Ruiz-Monachesi, Antonieta Labra 2020. Testing the Functionality of Lipids from Feces in the Conspecific Recognition of the Weeping Lizard, Liolaemus chiliensis. Journal of Herpetology 54 (4): 476-479 - get paper here
  • VALLADARES, J. PABLO; RICHARD ETHERIDGE, JAMES SCHULTE II, GERMAN MANRIQUEZ & ANGEL SPOTORNO 2002. Nueva especie de lagartija del norte de Chile, Liolaemus molinai (Reptilia: Liolaeminae). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 75: 473-489 - get paper here
  • Videla, F., and J. M. Cei. 1996. A new peculiar Liolaemus species of the "chiliensis" phyletic group from the volcanic cordilleran landscapes of southern Mendoza province, Argentina (Iguania, Lacertilia, Reptilia). Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 14: 505-516.
  • Werner, F. 1904. Ergebnisse der Hamburger Magalhaensischen Sammelreise. I. Band. Allgemeines, Chordonier, Echinodermen und Coelenteraten. IV. Reptilien und Batrachier. L Friedrichsen & Co, Hamburg, 21 pp.
  • Werning, H. 2009. Auf den Spuren von Darwin durch Südamerika, Teil 2: Von Patagonien nach Zntral-Chile. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (79): 52-61 - get paper here
  • Wiegmann, A. F. A. 1834. In: Dr. F. J. F. Meyen: Beiträge zur Zoologie gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erde. Siebente Abhandlung. Amphibien. Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academia Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolina (Halle) 17: 185-268 [1835] - get paper here
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