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Liolaemus crepuscularis ABDALA & DÍAZ-GOMEZ, 2006

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymLiolaemus crepuscularis ABDALA & DÍAZ-GOMEZ 2006
Liolaemus ornatus ETHERIDGE 1993 (part)
Liolaemus sp. Mina Capillitas ABDALA & LOBO 2006 
DistributionArgentina (Catamarca), elevation above 2800 m.

Type locality: Puesto Flores, 2 km South from Mina Capillitas, Ruta Provincial 47 (km 50 a 52), elevation 3100 m Departamento Andalgalá, provincia de Catamarca, Argentina.  
Reproductionviviparous. 
TypesHolotype: FML 16622 (FBC 415). Adult male. Collected by C. Abdala, Quinteros S., Scrocchi G. and S. Barrionuevo. March 3, 2005. 
CommentMember of the darwinii group of Liolaemus.

blue coloration of the flanks, reminiscent of the colours of nightfall. This word derives from the Latin “crepusculum” which means “twilight.”

Diagnosis: Liolaemus crepuscularis is a member of the L. boulengeri group diagnosed by a patch of enlarged scales on the posterior thigh (Etheridge, 1995). Within this group it is a member of the L. laurenti group (Abdala, 2005), diagnosed by posterior marginal teeth with straight-side tooth crowns, a dark stripe through the eye, and marked sexual dichromatism. Tooth morphology and the dark stripe through the eye distinguish this new species from the species in the L. melanops group (Abdala, 2005) (L. boulengeri Koslowsky, L canqueli Cei & Scolaro, L. cuyanus Cei & Scolaro, L. donosobarrosi Cei, L. fitzingerii (Dumeril & Bibrón), L. inacayali Abdala, L. josei Abdala, L. mapuche Abdala, L. martorii Abdala, L. melanops (Bursmeister), L. morenoi Etheridge & Christie, L. loboi Abdala, L. sagei Etheridge & Christie, L. rothi Koslowsky, L. senguer Abdala, L. tehuelche Abdala, L. telsen Cei & Scolaro and L. xanthoviridis Cei & Scolaro, and sexual dichromatism distinguishes L. crepuscularis from L canqueli, L. cuyanus, L. fitzingerii, L. martorii, L. morenoi, L. sagei, and L. xanthoviridis. The lack of cephalic melanism distinguish L. crepuscularis from L. canqueli and L. melanops, and the absence of melanic gular or antehumeral collar separates it from L. canqueli, L. cuyanus, L. mapuche, L. morenoi, L. fitzingerii and L. xanthoviridis. Liolaemus crepuscularis has four scales in contact with the mental, not six as L. cuyanus and the species of the L. wiegmannii group Etheridge (L. arambarensis Verrastro et al, L. azarai Avila, L. lutzae Mertens, L. multimaculatus (Dumeril & Bibrón), L. occipitalis Boulenger, L. rabinoi (Cei), L. riojanus Cei, L. salinicola Laurent, L. wiegmannii (Dumeril & Bibrón) y L. scapularis Laurent), or variation from four to six scales as in L. josei and L. mapuche. One row of lorilabials, not two, distinguishes the new species from the species of the L. wiegmannii group. Liolaemus crepuscularis differs from the species of the L. anomalus group (L. anomalus Koslowsky , L. pseudoanomalus Cei, L. ditadai Cei, and L. lentus Gallardo) (Abdala, 2005) by having caudal autotomy, tail longer than body, head longer than wider, palpebral ‘comb’ not developed, a larger number of precloacal pores in both males and females, and the absence of pterygoid teeth. Within the L. laurenti group (Abdala, 2005), L. crepuscularis is part of the L. ornatus group (with L. albiceps Lobo & Laurent, L. calchaqui Lobo & Kretzschmar, L. irregularis Laurent, L. ornatus and L. lavillai). These species differs from L. abaucan Etheridge, L. chacoensis Shreve, L. darwinii Bell, L. grosseorum Etheridge, L. koslowskyi Etheridge, L. laurenti Etheridge, L. olongasta Etheridge, L. quilmes Etheridge and L. uspallatensis Macola & Castro, by having a larger number of precloacal pores in females and because of being viviparous. Within the L. ornatus group, it differs from L. albiceps and L. irregularis in having a shorter maximum snout-vent length (L. crepuscularis mean SVL 64.0 mm in comparison to 82.5 mm of L. albiceps and 86.1 mm of L. irregularis), and females with fewer precloacal pores ( = 6.5 vs. = 7.5 y = 8.4 respectively). Liolaemus crepuscularis is distinguished from L. ornatus in having males with background coloration of dorsum light brown to ferrous red and head coloration darker than the rest of the body, paravertebral markings more rounded and never in contact, dorsolateral strips less marked, body and tail with more light blue scales, little dark brown spots on the throat, belly white or light red, and lateral fields of intense ferrous red. Liolaemus crepuscularis is distinguished from L. calchaqui in having a larger body size (maximum SVL 64.0 mm vs. 57.8 mm) and different color pattern, with rounded or quadrangular paravertebrals markings well defined, light blue scales on the lateral body and tail, and lateral fields red, a pattern not present in L. calchaqui. L. crepuscularis is distinguished from L. lavillai by the dorsal coloration (brown in L . lavillai) and the absence of light blue scales in L. lavillai. Liolaemus crepuscularis males have a characteristic dorsal color pattern, with dorsal field light brown or ferrous red, dorsolateral stripes with yellow and light blue scales, and dark brown prescapular spot similar in size and color to the lateral markings. This set of characters of the color pattern differentiates it from the remaining species of the L. laurenti group. The presence of the prescapular spot similar to the lateral markings distinguish L. crepuscularis from species where this mark better defined (L. abaucan, L. darwinii, L. espinozai Abdala, L. grosseorum, L. koslowskyi and L. quilmes) and from species where it is absent (L. albiceps, L. calchaqui, L. irregularis, L. ornatus). In L. crepuscularis the black antehumeral arch typical of L. darwinii, L. laurenti, L. grosseorum and L. olongasta is absent. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet crepuscularis refers to the brown-red mixed with  
References
  • Abdala, C.S. 2007. Phylogeny of the boulengeri group (Iguania: Liolaemidae, Liolaemus) based on morphological and molecular characters. Zootaxa 1538: 1-84 - get paper here
  • Abdala, C.S. & Diaz Gómez, J.M. 2006. A new species of the Liolaemus darwinii group (Iguania: Liolaemidae) from Catamarca Province, Argentina. Zootaxa 1317: 21–33 - get paper here
  • ABDALA, CRISTIAN SIMÓN; ANDRÉS SEBASTIÁN QUINTEROS,, FEDERICO ARIAS, SABRINA PORTELLI & ANTONIO PALAVECINO 2011. A new species of the Liolaemus darwinii group (Iguania: Liolaemidae) from Salta Province, Argentina. Zootaxa 2968: 26–38 - get paper here
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; LORENA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2013. Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: an update. Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238
  • Semhan, Romina Valeria, Monique Halloy, and Cristian Simón Abdala 2013. Diet and Reproductive States in a High Altitude Neotropical Lizard, Liolaemus crepuscularis (Iguania: Liolaemidae). South American Journal of Herpetology Aug 2013, Vol. 8, No. 2: 102-108. - get paper here
  • Tulli, M.J.; F.B. Cruz, A. Herrel, B. Vanhooydonck, V. Abdala 2009. The interplay between claw morphology and microhabitat use in neotropical iguanian lizards. Zoology 112 (5): 379-392 - get paper here
 
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