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Liolaemus nigromaculatus (WIEGMANN, 1834)

IUCN Red List - Liolaemus nigromaculatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Many-spotted Tree Iguana 
SynonymTropidurus nigromaculatus WIEGMANN in MEYEN 1835: 229
Proctotretus nigromaculatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 281
Liolaemus conspersus GRAVENHORST 1838: 737 (fide BOULENGER 1885)
Liolaemus oxycephalus GRAVENHORST 1838: 735 (fide BOULENGER 1885)
Ptychodeira nigromaculatus — FITZINGER 1843: 73
Leiolaemus nigromaculatus — GRAY 1845: 213
Leiolaemus inconspicuus — GRAY 1845: 213
Proctotretus Nigromaculatus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 269
Rhytidodeira nigromaculatus — GIRARD 1858: 198
Rhytidodeira oxycephala — GIRARD 1858: 198
Proctotretus pallidus PHILIPPI 1860: 166
Proctotretus bisignatus PHILIPPI 1860: 166 (nomen nudum)
Liolaemus nigromaculatus — BOULENGER 1885: 147
Liolaemus nigromaculatus bisignatus — MÜLLER & HELLMICH 1933: 132
Liolaemus nigromaculatus copiapensis MÜLLER & HELLMICH 1933
Liolaemus nigromaculatus copiapoensis [sic] — DONOSO-BARROS 1966: 255
Liolaemus nigromaculatus bisignatus — DONOSO-BARROS 1966: 250
Liolaemus nigromaculatus bisignatus — PETERS et al. 1970: 189
Liolaemus nigromaculatus copiapensis — PETERS et al. 1970: 189
Liolaemus nigromaculatus — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 187
Liolaemus copiapensis — ORTIZ 1981
Liolaemus nigromaculatus — KELT et al. 2002
Liolaemus nigromaculatus — TRONCOSO-PALACIOS & GARIN 2013
Liolaemus nigromaculatus nigromaculatus — GEMEL et al. 2019 
DistributionChile (Atacama to Valparaiso)

Type locality: Chile (restricted to Huasco, Chile by Müller & Hellmich 1933); corrected and restricted further to restricted to the transect and surroundings of Puerto Viejo – Copiapo (Tronocos-Palacios & Garin 2013).

bisignatus: Chile (Atacama, Coquimbo); Type locality: Atacama, Caldera.

copiapensis: Chile (Copiapo); Type locality: “Copiapó (Nordchile)”  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: ZMB 613 (Zool. Mus. Berlin)
Holotype: MNHN 1477 (bisignatus)
Holotype: MNHW = MNHUW 1321, probably male [conspersus]
Syntypes: ZSM 182/1931/1-2 (originally ZSM 182/1931a-b [copiapensis]
Syntypes: NMW [Proctotretus pallidus] 
Diagnosis 
CommentSynonymy mostly after BOULENGER 1885. Liolaemus copiapensis was revalidated by ORTIZ 1981 and then synonymized again by PINCHEIRA-DONOSO & NÚÑEZ 2005, a decision that was supported by LOBO et al. 2010 and TRONCOSO-PALACIOS & GARIN 2013 who also found that “L. oxycephalus and L. inconspicuus are not synonymous with L. nigromaculatus, although their true identities are difficult to determine.” The status of Liolaemus conspersus remains uncertain (Borczyk & Skawiński 2019).

Photo: THe photo of “Liolaemus bisignatus” in Troncoso-Palacios & Marambio-Alfaro (2011) and Marambio-Alfaro & Hiriart-Lamas (2012) is actually a L. atacamensis (Troncoso-Palacios 2014).

Distribution: not listed for Argentina fide AVILA et al. 2010, Lista de las lagartijas y anfisbaenas de Argentina.

Variation: this species is quite variable, see photos in TRONCOSO-PALACIOS & GARIN 2013 (Figure 6).

LOBO (2001) suggests the following monophyletic species groups within Liolaemus: alticolor, altissimus, gravenhorstii, hellmichi, kriegi, leopardinus, monticola, nigromaculatus, nigroviridis, pictus and tenuis. 
Etymology 
References
  • Astroza, Margarita Ruiz de Gamboa and Marcos Ferrù Gonzaliz. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Liolaemus nigromaculatus (many-spotted tree iguana). Herpetological Review 46 (2): 217 - get paper here
  • Borczyk B, Skawiński T. 2019. Tracking down the lizards from Gravenhorst's collection at the University of Wrocław: type specimens of Callopistes maculatus Gravenhorst, 1838 and three Liolaemus species rediscovered. PeerJ 7:e6525 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Demangel, Diego 2016. Reptiles en Chile. Fauna Nativa Ediciones, Santiago, 619 pp - get paper here
  • Donoso-Barros, R. 1966. Reptiles de Chile. Santiago: Univ. Chile, 458 + cxlvi pp.
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M.C., G. BIBRON & A. DUMÉRIL 1854. Erpétologie générale ou Histoire Naturelle complète des Reptiles. Vol. 9. Paris, XX + 440 S. - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Girard, C. 1858. Descriptions of some new Reptiles, collected by the US. Exploring Expedition under the command of Capt. Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Fourth Part. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci Philadelphia 1857: 195-199 - get paper here
  • Girard, Charles F. 1858. United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, Under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Vol. 20. Herpetology. C. Sherman & Son, Philadelphia, xv, 492 pages [see note in Zhao and Adler 1993: 369] - get paper here
  • Gravenhorst, J. L. C. 1838. Beiträge zur genaueren Kenntniss einiger Eidechsengattungen. Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. 18: 712-784 [1837]
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Gutsche, A. 2016. Arend Friedrich August Wiegmann (1802–1841) und sein Beitrag zur Herpetologie der Neotropis am Zoologischen Museum Berlin. Mertensiella 23: 156–169
  • Kelt, D.A. et al. 2002. Size-specific differences in tail loss and escape behavior in Liolaemus nigromaculatus. Journal of Herpetology 36 (2): 322-325 - get paper here
  • Koslowsky,J. 1895. Batracios y reptiles de Rioja y Catamarca. Rev. Mus. La Plata 6: 359-370 - get paper here
  • Lobo, F.; Espinoza, R.E. and S. Quinteros 2010. A critical review and systematic discussion of recent classification proposals for liolaemid lizards. Zootaxa 2549: 1–30 - get paper here
  • Lobo, Fernando 2001. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Lizards of the Liolaemus chiliensis Group (Iguania: Tropiduridae). The Herpetological Journal 11 (4):137-150 - get paper here
  • Marambio-Alfaro, Y. & D. Hiriart-Lamas 2012. Reptiles de la Región de Atacama. FNDR, Atacama
  • Müller, L. & Hellmich, W. 1933. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Herpetofauna Chiles. VII. Der Rassenkreis der Liolaemus nigromaculatus. Zool. Anz. 103: 128-142
  • Müller, Lorenz & Hellmich, Walter 1933. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Herpetofauna Chiles. VI. Über einige Liolaemus - Arten des Berliner Naturkundlichen Museums. Zool. Anz. 101 (5/6): 121-134
  • Núñez, H. and A. Veloso 2001. Distribución geográfica de las especies de lagartos de la región de Antofagasta, Chile. Bol. Mus. Nac.Hist. Nat. 50: 109-120
  • Núñez,H.; Schulte, J.A. & Garín, C. 2001. Liolaemus josephorum, nueva especie de lagartija para el Norte de Chile. Bol. Mus. Nac.Hist. Nat. 50: 91-107
  • Ortiz Z., J.C. 1981. Revision taxinomique et biologie des Liolaemus du groupe nigromaculatus (Squamata: Iguanidae). PhD. Diss., Univ. de Paris 438 pp.
  • Ortiz, J. C. 1981. Estudios multivariado de las especies de Liolaemus del grupo nigromaculatus (Squamata-Iguanidae). Anales del museo de historia natural, Valparaiso 14: 247-265
  • Panzera A, Leaché AD, D’Elía G, Victoriano PF. 2017. Phylogenomic analysis of the Chilean clade of Liolaemus lizards (Squamata: Liolaemidae) based on sequence capture data. PeerJ 5:e3941 - get paper here
  • Philippi, R.A. 1860. Reise durch die Wüste Atacama, auf Befehl der chilenischen Regierung im Sommer 1853-1854. Halle, Eduard Anton, ix + 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Troncoso-Palacios J, Garin CF 2013. On the identity of Liolaemus nigromaculatus Wiegmann, 1834 (Iguania, Liolaemidae) and correction of its type locality. ZooKeys 294: 37–56 - get paper here
  • Troncoso-Palacios, J. & Y. Marambio. 2011. Lista comentada de los reptiles de la Región de Atacama. Boletín del Museo Regional de Atacama 2: 60– 78
  • Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime 2014. Nueva lista actualizada de los reptiles terrestres de la Región de Atacama, Chile. Boletín Chileno de Herpetología 1: 1-4 - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1904. Ergebnisse der Hamburger Magalhaensischen Sammelreise. I. Band. Allgemeines, Chordonier, Echinodermen und Coelenteraten. IV. Reptilien und Batrachier. L Friedrichsen & Co, Hamburg, 21 pp.
  • Wiegmann, A. F. A. 1834. In: Dr. F. J. F. Meyen: Beiträge zur Zoologie gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erde. Siebente Abhandlung. Amphibien. Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academia Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolina (Halle) 17: 185-268 [1835] - get paper here
 
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