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Liolaemus nigromaculatus (WIEGMANN, 1834)

IUCN Red List - Liolaemus nigromaculatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesMany-spotted Tree Iguana 
SynonymTropidurus nigromaculatus WIEGMANN in MEYEN 1835: 229
Proctotretus nigromaculatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 281
Liolaemus conspersus GRAVENHORST 1838: 737 (fide BOULENGER 1885)
Liolaemus oxycephalus GRAVENHORST 1838: 735 (fide BOULENGER 1885)
Ptychodeira nigromaculatus — FITZINGER 1843: 73
Leiolaemus nigromaculatus — GRAY 1845: 213
Leiolaemus inconspicuus — GRAY 1845: 213
Proctotretus Nigromaculatus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 269
Rhytidodeira nigromaculatus — GIRARD 1858: 198
Rhytidodeira oxycephala — GIRARD 1858: 198
Proctotretus pallidus PHILIPPI 1860: 166
Proctotretus bisignatus PHILIPPI 1860: 166 (nomen nudum)
Liolaemus nigromaculatus — BOULENGER 1885: 147
Liolaemus nigromaculatus bisignatus — MÜLLER & HELLMICH 1933: 132
Liolaemus nigromaculatus copiapensis MÜLLER & HELLMICH 1933
Liolaemus nigromaculatus copiapoensis [sic] — DONOSO-BARROS 1966: 255
Liolaemus nigromaculatus bisignatus — DONOSO-BARROS 1966: 250
Liolaemus nigromaculatus bisignatus — PETERS et al. 1970: 189
Liolaemus nigromaculatus copiapensis — PETERS et al. 1970: 189
Liolaemus nigromaculatus — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 187
Liolaemus copiapensis — ORTIZ 1981
Liolaemus nigromaculatus — KELT et al. 2002
Liolaemus nigromaculatus — TRONCOSO-PALACIOS & GARIN 2013 
DistributionChile (Atacama to Valparaiso)

Type locality: Chile (restricted to Huasco, Chile by Müller & Hellmich 1933); corrected and restricted further to restricted to the transect and surroundings of Puerto Viejo – Copiapo (Tronocos-Palacios & Garin 2013).

bisignatus: Chile (Atacama, Coquimbo); Type locality: Atacama, Caldera.

copiapensis: Chile (Copiapo); Type locality: “Copiapó (Nordchile)”  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: ZMB 613 (Zool. Mus. Berlin)
Holotype: MNHN 1477 (bisignatus)
Syntypes: ZSM 182/1931/1-2 (originally ZSM 182/1931a-b [copiapensis]
Syntypes: NMW [Proctotretus pallidus] 
CommentSynonymy mostly after BOULENGER 1885. Liolaemus copiapensis was revalidated by ORTIZ 1981 and then synonymized again by PINCHEIRA-DONOSO & NÚÑEZ 2005, a decision that was supported by LOBO et al. 2010 and TRONCOSO-PALACIOS & GARIN 2013 who also found that “L. oxycephalus and L. inconspicuus are not synonymous with L. nigromaculatus, although their true identities are difficult to determine.”

Photo: THe photo of “Liolaemus bisignatus” in Troncoso-Palacios & Marambio-Alfaro (2011) and Marambio-Alfaro & Hiriart-Lamas (2012) is actually a L. atacamensis (Troncoso-Palacios 2014).

Distribution: not listed for Argentina fide AVILA et al. 2010, Lista de las lagartijas y anfisbaenas de Argentina.

Variation: this species is quite variable, see photos in TRONCOSO-PALACIOS & GARIN 2013 (Figure 6).

LOBO (2001) suggests the following monophyletic species groups within Liolaemus: alticolor, altissimus, gravenhorstii, hellmichi, kriegi, leopardinus, monticola, nigromaculatus, nigroviridis, pictus and tenuis. 
References
  • Astroza, Margarita Ruiz de Gamboa and Marcos Ferrù Gonzaliz. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Liolaemus nigromaculatus (many-spotted tree iguana). Herpetological Review 46 (2): 217
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Demangel, Diego 2016. Reptiles en Chile. Fauna Nativa Ediciones, Santiago, 619 pp - get paper here
  • Donoso-Barros, R. 1966. Reptiles de Chile. Santiago: Univ. Chile, 458 + cxlvi pp.
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M.C., G. BIBRON & A. DUMÉRIL 1854. Erpétologie générale ou Histoire Naturelle complète des Reptiles. Vol. 9. Paris, XX + 440 S. - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Girard, C. 1858. Descriptions of some new Reptiles, collected by the US. Exploring Expedition under the command of Capt. Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Fourth Part. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci Philadelphia 1857: 195-199 - get paper here
  • Girard, Charles F. 1858. United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, Under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Vol. 20. Herpetology. C. Sherman & Son, Philadelphia, xv, 492 pages [see note in Zhao and Adler 1993: 369] - get paper here
  • Gravenhorst, J. L. C. 1838. Beiträge zur genaueren Kenntniss einiger Eidechsengattungen. Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. 18: 712-784 [1837]
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Kelt, D.A. et al. 2002. Size-specific differences in tail loss and escape behavior in Liolaemus nigromaculatus. Journal of Herpetology 36 (2): 322-325 - get paper here
  • Koslowsky,J. 1895. Batracios y reptiles de Rioja y Catamarca. Rev. Mus. La Plata 6: 359-370 - get paper here
  • Lobo, F.; Espinoza, R.E. and S. Quinteros 2010. A critical review and systematic discussion of recent classification proposals for liolaemid lizards. Zootaxa 2549: 1–30 - get paper here
  • Lobo, Fernando 2001. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Lizards of the Liolaemus chiliensis Group (Iguania: Tropiduridae). The Herpetological Journal 11 (4):137-150
  • Marambio-Alfaro, Y. & D. Hiriart-Lamas. 2012. Reptiles de la Región de Atacama. FNDR, Atacama
  • Müller, L. & Hellmich, W. 1933. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Herpetofauna Chiles. VII. Der Rassenkreis der Liolaemus nigromaculatus. Zool. Anz. 103: 128-142
  • Müller, Lorenz & Hellmich, Walter 1933. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Herpetofauna Chiles. VI. Über einige Liolaemus - Arten des Berliner Naturkundlichen Museums. Zool. Anz. 101 (5/6): 121-134
  • Núñez, H. and A. Veloso 2001. Distribución geográfica de las especies de lagartos de la región de Antofagasta, Chile. Bol. Mus. Nac.Hist. Nat. 50: 109-120
  • Núñez,H.; Schulte, J.A. & Garín, C. 2001. Liolaemus josephorum, nueva especie de lagartija para el Norte de Chile. Bol. Mus. Nac.Hist. Nat. 50: 91-107
  • Ortiz Z., J.C. 1981. Revision taxinomique et biologie des Liolaemus du groupe nigromaculatus (Squamata: Iguanidae). PhD. Diss., Univ. de Paris 438 pp.
  • Ortiz, J. C. 1981. Estudios multivariado de las especies de Liolaemus del grupo nigromaculatus (Squamata-Iguanidae). Anales del museo de historia natural, Valparaiso 14: 247-265
  • Philippi, R.A. 1860. Reise durch die Wüste Atacama, auf Befehl der chilenischen Regierung im Sommer 1853-1854. Halle, Eduard Anton, ix + 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Troncoso-Palacios J, Garin CF 2013. On the identity of Liolaemus nigromaculatus Wiegmann, 1834 (Iguania, Liolaemidae) and correction of its type locality. ZooKeys 294: 37–56 - get paper here
  • Troncoso-Palacios, J. & Y. Marambio. 2011. Lista comentada de los reptiles de la Región de Atacama. Boletín del Museo Regional de Atacama 2: 60– 78
  • Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime 2014. Nueva lista actualizada de los reptiles terrestres de la Región de Atacama, Chile. Boletín Chileno de Herpetología 1: 1-4 - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1904. Ergebnisse der Hamburger Magalhaensischen Sammelreise. I. Band. Allgemeines, Chordonier, Echinodermen und Coelenteraten. IV. Reptilien und Batrachier. L Friedrichsen & Co, Hamburg, 21 pp.
  • Wiegmann, A. F. A. 1834. In: Dr. F. J. F. Meyen: Beiträge zur Zoologie gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erde. Siebente Abhandlung. Amphibien. Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academia Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolina (Halle) 17: 185-268 [1835] - get paper here
 
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