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Liolaemus ornatus KOSLOWSKY, 1898

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Ornate Tree Iguana
S: Lagartija ornamentada 
SynonymLiolaemus ornatus KOSLOWSKY 1898: 178
Liolaemus simonsi BOULENGER 1902: 398 (fide LAURENT 1992)
Liolaemus mocquardi PELLEGRIN 1909: 325 (fide LAURENT 1992)
Liolaemus pulcher PELLEGRIN 1909 (fide LAURENT 1992)
Liolaemus pulcher — RENDAHL 1937
Liolaemus mocquardi — PEARSON & BRADFORD 1976
Liolaemus ornatus — PETERS et al. 1970: 191
Liolaemus ornatus — CEI 1993
Liolaemus ornatus — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Liolaemus (Eulaemus) ornatus — SCHULTE et al. 2000
Liolaemus (Eulaemus) ornatus — RAMIREZ LEYTON & PINCHEIRA-DONOSO 2005: 138
Liolaemus ornatus — PINCHEIRA-DONOSO & NUNEZ 2005: 90
Liolaemus enigmaticus PINCHEIRA-DONOSO & NUNEZ 2005: 85
Liolaemus (Eulaemus) ornatus — MORANDO et al. 2020
Liolaemus ornatus — RUIZ et al. 2021 
DistributionChile, Argentina (Jujuy, Catamarca, Salta), Bolivia (La Paz, Oruro, Potosí, Tarija), Peru (Altiplano)

Type locality: Cordilleras de la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina (KOSLOWSKY 1898). Neotype locality: 3 km NW of Abra Pampa (22°43'S, 65°42'W) on Ruta Prov. 7, 3460 meters, Departamento de Cochinoca, Provincia de Jujuy, Republica de Argentina.  
TypesNeotype: MLP S.1162, designated by Etheridge 1993: 171. The syntypes are lost fide Etheridge 1993: 171.
Syntype: NMW 18911 [pulcher] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Adult males of Liolaemus ornatus differ from other members of the L. dalwinii complex in having the dorsal ground color of the head and neck darker than the rest of the body, and from L. datwinii, L. olongasta and L. laurenti in lacking intensely black pigment in the antehumeral fold, from L. dalwinii, L. koslowskyi and L. abaucan in lacking conspicuously enlarged prescapular and postscapular spots, from L. abaucan and L. uspal/atensis in having larger, more distinctly keeled, scales, from L. irregularis in having a distinct, more-or-less symmetrical pattern, and from L. quilmes and all other species save L. irregularis, in having precloacal pores in more than 95 per cent, rather than fewer than 10 per cent, of females (Etheridge 1993: 172).

Variation. Maximum size, and variation in tail/total length, scale counts, and precloacal pore numbers provided in Tables 1-4 (Etheridge 1993: 173).

Coloration: Bold standard pattern usually present in juveniles of both sexes, but adults dissimilar, and there is marked geographic variation. In Jujuy Province, stripes ofadult males may fragment, more often dorsolateral and ventrolateral stripes are wide and continuous, rendered conspicuous by creamy-yellow scales. Paravertebral spots usually enlarged, sometimes fragmented, but always forming a bold pattern of creamy-yellow and dark brown between the dorsolateral stripes; ground color between paravertebral stripes sometimes brick red or dark bronze. Head and neck always boldly marked with yellow or orange streaks and spots on a rich dark brown background; temporal region and sides ofneck usually with conspicuous dorsolateral and ventrolateral stripes; ground color of head and neck usually conspicuously darker, and contrast between ground color and light spots bolder, than elsewhere on body. Pattern of adult females little modified, or variously reduced due to reduced size of spots and ground color the same color as stripes.
In Salta Province, in the valley of the Rio Calchaqui nonh of La Poma, most adult males (PI. 3.2) with bold, creamy-yellow dorsolateral and ventrolateral stripes, ground color nearly uniform dark brown, or with scattered fragments of the paravertebral and lateral spots, and head marked as in Jujuy specimens; females with same general tendency for bold stripes and fragmentation of spots, but not as extreme. Farther south, in the Cumbres de Obispo east of the Rio Calchaqui valley, the pattern is more like that described for Jujuy specimens. Adult males from Puesto El Mufinoz, at 3600 m on the eastern slopes of the Cumbres Calchaques, above the Rio Santa Maria valley, in Tucuman Province, have a bold dorsal pattern consisting of wide, bold dorsolateral light stripes with undulating borders due to fusion with white posterior margins of paravenebral spots; ventrolateral white stripes also prominent on body and tail; lateral spots enlarged and fused to form dark brown lateral stripes with small, white spots; head and sides of neck especially ornate; throat and sides of abdomen with high-contrast pattern of dark brown spots on white background. Specimens from Mina Capillitas, in the Nevado Candado ofeastern Catamarca Province, have a bold standard pattern, especially ornate on the head and neck; all lateral spots distinct and dark brown. In western Catamarca Province, a collection from La Cienega, at 3300 m in the Sierra de Fiambals, above Medarutos, adult males with head and neck ornate; bold dorsolateral stripes, widely separate paravenebral spots, dark pigment within antehumeral fold, pair of dark bars with white in between continuing onto forelimb, similar to pattern found on foream in L. olongasta; throat with very bold pattern of dark brown spots, abdomen with similar but not as bold spots Etheridge 1993: 173). 
CommentMember of the darwinii group of Liolaemus.

Sexual dimorphism: this species is highly dimorphic. The females of this species were described as L. mocquardi (C. Pincheira-Donoso, pers. comm., 20 May 2013). 
EtymologyPresumed to refer to the brightly colored, ornate pattern characteristic of adult males of the species (Etheridge 1993: 172). 
  • Abdala CS, Aguilar-Kirigin AJ, Semhan RV, Bulacios Arroyo AL, Valdes J, Paz MM, et al. 2019. Description and phylogeny of a new species of Liolaemus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) endemic to the south of the Plurinational State of Bolivia. PLoS ONE 14(12): e0225815 - get paper here
  • Abdala, C.S. 2005. Una nueva especie del género Liolaemus perteneciente al complejo darwinii (Iguania:Liolaemidae) de la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina. Revista Española de Herpetologia 19:5-17 - get paper here
  • Abdala, C.S. 2007. Phylogeny of the boulengeri group (Iguania: Liolaemidae, Liolaemus) based on morphological and molecular characters. Zootaxa 1538: 1-84 - get paper here
  • ABDALA, CRISTIAN SIMÓN; ANDRÉS SEBASTIÁN QUINTEROS,, FEDERICO ARIAS, SABRINA PORTELLI & ANTONIO PALAVECINO 2011. A new species of the Liolaemus darwinii group (Iguania: Liolaemidae) from Salta Province, Argentina. Zootaxa 2968: 26–38 - get paper here
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; LORENA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2013. Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: an update. Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1902. Descriptions of new batrachians and reptiles from the Andes of Peru and Bolivia [Elaps regularis not assigned]. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (7) 10 (59): 394-402 - get paper here
  • Demangel, Diego 2016. Reptiles en Chile. Fauna Nativa Ediciones, Santiago, 619 pp - get paper here
  • Dirksen, L. & De la Riva, I. 1999. The lizards and amphisbaenians of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata): checklist, localities, and bibliography. Graellsia 55: 199-215 - get paper here
  • Etheridge, R. 1993. Lizards of the Liolaemus darwinii complex (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae) in Northern Argentina. MUSEO REGIONALE DI SCIENZE NATURALI BOLLETTINO (TURIN). 11 (1): 137-199
  • Etheridge, R. 2000. A review of lizards of the Liolaemus wiegmannii group (Squamata, Iguania, Tropiduridae), and a history of morphological change in the sand-dwelling species. Herpetological Monographs 14: 293-352 - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Jiménez‐Robles, O, De la Riva, I. 2019. Lizards in the mist: Thermal niches constrained by habitat and microclimates in the Andes of southern Bolivia. J Biogeogr. 46: 1676– 1686 - get paper here
  • Koslowsky,J. 1898. Enumeración sistemática y distribución geográfica de los reptiles argentinos. Rev. Mus. La Plata 8: 161-200 - get paper here
  • Langstroth, R.P. 2005. Adiciones probables y confirmadas para la saurofauna boliviana. Kempffiana 1 (1): 101-128
  • Lobo, F.; Espinoza, R.E. and S. Quinteros 2010. A critical review and systematic discussion of recent classification proposals for liolaemid lizards. Zootaxa 2549: 1–30 - get paper here
  • Pearson, O.P. & D.F. Bradford 1976. Thermoregulation of lizards and toads at high altitudes in Peru Copeia 1976 (1): 155-170. - get paper here
  • Pellegrin,J. 1909. Description de cinq lézards nouveaux des hauts-plateaux du Pérou et de la Bolivie, appartenant au genre Liolaemus. Bull. Mus. natl. Hist. nat. Paris 6: 324-329 - get paper here
  • Pereyra, E. 1986. Variación geográfica en Liolaemus ornatus Koslowsky (Sauria, Iguanidae). Cuadernos de Herpetología 2 (2): 1-21 - get paper here
  • Pincheira-Donoso, D. & Núñez, H. 2002. Situación taxonómica de Liolaemus ornatus Koslowsky 1898 y Liolaemus pantherinus Pellegrin, 1909 (Sauria, Tropiduridae, Liolaeminae). Noticiario del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Chile 350: 38-42
  • PINCHEIRA-DONOSO, Daniel & HERMAN NÚÑEZ 2005. The Chilean species of the genus Liolaemus Wiegmann, 1834 (Iguania, Tropiduridae, Liolaeminae). Taxonomy, systematics and evolution [in Spanish] Mus Nac Hist Nat Chile Publ Ocas 59: 1-486 - get paper here
  • Ramírez Leyton, G. & Pincheira Donoso, D. 2005. Fauna del Altiplano y Desierto de Atacama. Phrynosaura Ediciones, 395 pp.
  • Rendahl, H. 1937. Einige Reptilien aus Ecuador und Bolivia. Ark. Zool. 29 (13): 1-19.
  • Ruiz De Gamboa A, Margarita 2015. Liolaemus ornatus Koslowsky 1898 (Squamata, Liolaemidae) en Chile: Registro de una nueva localidad y mapa de distribución actualizado. Boletín Chileno de Herpetología 2: 4-7 - get paper here
  • Ruiz, S., Quipildor, M., Ruiz-Monachesi, M. R., Escalante, L., Valdecantos, S., & Lobo, F. 2021. Diversification and geological history of the Liolaemus ornatus group (Squamata: Iguania) of Argentina including the recognition of a new species. Zoologischer Anzeiger - get paper here
  • SCHULTE II, JAMES A.; J. ROBERT MACEY, ROBERT E. ESPINOZA AND ALLAN LARSON 2000. Phylogenetic relationships in the iguanid lizard genus Liolaemus: multiple origins of viviparous reproduction and evidence for recurring Andean vicariance and dispersal. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 69: 75–102 - get paper here
  • Tulli, M.J.; F.B. Cruz, A. Herrel, B. Vanhooydonck, V. Abdala 2009. The interplay between claw morphology and microhabitat use in neotropical iguanian lizards. Zoology 112 (5): 379-392 - get paper here
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