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Liolaemus pictus (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1837)

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesLiolaemus pictus pictus (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837)
Liolaemus pictus argentinus MÜLLER & HELLMICH 1939
Liolaemus pictus chiloeensis MÜLLER & HELLMICH 1939
Liolaemus pictus major BOULENGER 1885
Liolaemus pictus talcanensis URBINA & ZUÑIGA 1977
Liolaemus pictus codoceae PINCHEIRA-DONOSO & NUNEZ 2005 
Common NamesE: Painted Tree Iguana 
SynonymProctotretus pictus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 276
Proctotretus Pictus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 269
Liolaemus pictus — GRAY 1845: 213
Liolaemus pictus — BOULENGER 1885: 151
Liolaemus cyanogaster brattstroemi DONOSO-BARROS 1961: 486
Liolaemus pictus — SCHULTE et al. 2000
Liolaemus brattstroemi — PINCHEIRA-DONOSO & NÚÑEZ 2005: 347
Liolaemus brattstroemi — LOBO et al. 2010
Liolaemus cyanogaster brattstroemi — RUIZ D EGAMBOA 2016
Liolaemus pictus — ESQUERRÉ et al. 2022

Liolaemus pictus pictus (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837)
Chrysosaurus morio GAY 1848: 47
Proctotretus prasinus COPE 1868: 120
Liolaemus pictus pictus — BURT & BURT 1930: 17
Liolaemus pictus pictus — DONOSO-BARROS 1966: 215
Liolaemus pictus pictus — PETERS et al. 1970: 192

Liolaemus pictus argentinus MÜLLER & HELLMICH 1939
Liolaemus pictus argentinus — CEI 1984: 192
Liolaemus argentinus — LOBO et al. 2010
Liolaemus pictus argentinus — SCROCCHI et al. 2010
Liolaemus pictus argentinus — PEREZ et al. 2011
Liolaemus pictus argentinus — MINOLI et al. 2015

Liolaemus pictus chiloeensis MÜLLER & HELLMICH 1939
Liolaemus pictus chiloeensis — CEI 1984: 192
Liolaemus chiloeensis — LOBO et al. 2010

Liolaemus pictus major BOULENGER 1885: 152
Liolaemus pictus major — CEI 1984: 192
Liolaemus pictus codoceae PINCHEIRA-DONOSO & NUNEZ 2005 (nom. emend.)

Liolaemus pictus talcanensis URBINA & ZUÑIGA 1977
Liolaemus pictus talcanensis — CEI 1984: 192
Liolaemus talcanensis — LOBO et al. 2010 
DistributionS Chile, Argentina (incl. Rio Negro, Chubut)

Type locality: "Chili". Restricted type locality: "Valdivia".(Hellmich, Abh. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 24: XXX)

argentinus: Argentina (Rio Negro)

talcanensis: Chile; Type locality: “extremo Norte del sector tendedor de la Isla Talcán, Chiloé, 42° 45’ S, 73° 00’ W),  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 0619 (five specimens respectively MNHN-RA 0619, MNHN-RA 0619A, MNHN-RA 0619B, MNHN-RA 0619C and MNHN-RA 0619D), MNHN-RA 620, MNHN-RA 6845 (four specimens respectively MNHN-RA 6845, MNHN-RA 6845A, MNHN-RA 6845B and MNHN-RA 6845C), MNHN-RA 2500, ANSP 8201
Holotype: ZSM 138/1938, male [argentinus]
Holotype: MZLU (Lund University ? - not explicitly given) [brattstroemi]
Holotype: ZSM 194/1931, male [chiloeensis]
Holotype: MNHNC 4260 (= Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Santiago de Chile, ex colección DBGUCH-1270), male, collected 30 Nov de 1987 by Luis Contreras & Juan Carlos Torres-Mura. Paratypes: MNHN [codoceae]
Syntypes: BMNH (renumbered 1946.8.2.40), xxii.8bjk (renumbered 1946.9.8.47), donated by Mr. Cumings and Mr Bracconier [major]
Holotype: ANSP 22945; Chile [prasinus]
Holotype: MZUC R. 12540 M. ("Zool. I.C.B. 'O.W.G.' Universidad de Concepción, Chile") [talcanensis] 
CommentSubspecies: the current system of subspecies has not been supported by recent studies. Vera-Escalona et a. (2013) suggest to recognize only L. pictus (the Southern group) and L. septentrionalis (the Northern group).

Species group: LOBO (2001) suggests the following monophyletic species groups within Liolaemus: alticolor, altissimus, gravenhorstii, hellmichi, kriegi, leopardinus, monticola, nigromaculatus, nigroviridis, pictus and tenuis.

Types: The syntypes of L. p. major are probably assignable to Liolaemus elongatus from populations occurring in Patagonia (southern Argentina or adjacent Chile). However, the precise identity of the syntypes requires additional study and perhaps a type locality restriction or redefinition of L. elongatus, which is itself in a state of flux (ESPINOZA et al. 2011).

Synonymy: ESQUERRÉ et al. 2022 synonymized Liolaemus (cyanogaster) brattstroemi with L. pictus. 
  • Álvarez, Andrea & Javier Zelada 2014. Un caso de saurofagia en Liolaemus pictus (Duméril & Bibron 1837) (Iguania: Liolaemidae). Boletín Chileno de Herpetología 1: 14 - get paper here
  • Avila, L. J.; Martinez, L. E.; Morando, M. 2010. Lista de las lagartijas y anfisbaenas de Argentina: una actualización [en línea]. Ver.1.0. 1 Diciembre 2010 [Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: An update]. Centro Nacional Patagónico CENPAT-CONICET. Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina. - get paper here
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; LORENA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2013. Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: an update. Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Burt, C. E.; Burt, M. D. 1930. The South American lizards in the collection of the United States National Museum. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 78 (6): 1-52 - get paper here
  • Castro-Pastene, Carlos 2015. Registro de Liolaemus pictus (Duméril & Bibron 1837) (Squamata, Liolaemidae) con dos colas. Boletín Chileno de Herpetología 2: 29 - get paper here
  • Cei J M; Williams J D 1984. Las colecciones herpetologicas de la expedicion patagonica del Perito Moreno (Marzo-Abril de 1896) y las formas argentinas de Liolaemus del grupo pictus. REVISTA DEL MUSEO DE LA PLATA SECCION ZOOLOGIA 13 (139): 183-194
  • Cope, E.D. 1868. An examination of the Reptilia and Batrachia obtained by the Orton Expedition to Equador and the Upper Amazon, with notes on other species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20: 96-140 - get paper here
  • Demangel, Diego 2016. Reptiles en Chile. Fauna Nativa Ediciones, Santiago, 619 pp - get paper here
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  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
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  • Espinoza, Robert E.; Fernando Lobo, and Richard Etheridge 2011. Taxonomic History of the Iguanian Lizard Liolaemus pictus major Boulenger, with a Revalidation of Liolaemus capillitas Hulse. Journal of Herpetology 45 (1): 129-133 - get paper here
  • Esquerré, Damien; J Scott Keogh, Diego Demangel, Mariana Morando, Luciano J Avila, Jack W Sites, Jr., Francisco Ferri-Yáñez, Adam D Leaché 2022. Rapid Radiation and Rampant Reticulation: Phylogenomics of South American Liolaemus Lizards. Systematic Biology 71 (2): 286–300 - get paper here
  • Gay, C. 1848. Historia física y política de Chile. Paris, Vol. 2: 47, 53, 61 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Gutierrez, Joel Antu, Carla Piantoni and Nora R. Ibargüengoytía. 2013. Altitudinal effects on life history parameters in populations of Liolaemus pictus argentinus (Sauria: Liolaemidae). Acta Herpetologica 8 (1): 9-17
  • Hellmich,W. 1938. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Herpetofauna Chiles. XII. Die Eidechsen des Volcán Villa Rica (Sammlung Schröder). Zool. Anz. 124 (9-10): 237-242.
  • Ibargüengoytía, Nora R. & Victor E. Cussac 1996. Reproductive biology of the viviparous lizard, Liolaemus pictus (Tropiduridae) biennial female reproductive cycle? The Herpetological Journal 6 (4): 137-143 - get paper here
  • Kubisch, E. L, Fernández, J. B., Ibargüengoytía, N. R. 2011. Is locomotor performance optimized at preferred body temperature? A study of Liolaemus pictus argentinus from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Thermal Biology 36: 328-333 - get paper here
  • Lobo, F.; Espinoza, R.E. and S. Quinteros 2010. A critical review and systematic discussion of recent classification proposals for liolaemid lizards. Zootaxa 2549: 1–30 - get paper here
  • Lobo, Fernando 2001. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Lizards of the Liolaemus chiliensis Group (Iguania: Tropiduridae). The Herpetological Journal 11 (4):137-150 - get paper here
  • Minoli I, Morando M, Avila LJ 2015. Reptiles of Chubut province, Argentina: richness, diversity, conservation status and geographic distribution maps. ZooKeys 498: 103-126. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.498.7476 - get paper here
  • Mora, Marta and Antonieta Labra 2017. The Response of Two Liolaemus Lizard Species to Ash from Fire and Volcanism. Journal of Herpetology 51 (3): 388 - get paper here
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  • Scrocchi, Gustavo J.; Cristian S. Abdala,Javier Nori, Hussam Zaher 2010. Reptiles de la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina. Fondo Ed. Rionegrino, 249 pp.
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  • Vera-Escalona I, D’Elía G, Gouin N, Fontanella FM, Muñoz-Mendoza C, Sites, Jr. Jack W., Victoriano, Pedro F. 2012. Lizards on Ice: Evidence for Multiple Refugia in Liolaemus pictus (Liolaemidae) during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Southern Andean Beech Forests. PLoS One 7 (11): e48358. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048358 - get paper here
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